Human factors in the causation of road traffic crashes

@article{Petridou2000HumanFI,
  title={Human factors in the causation of road traffic crashes},
  author={Eleni Th Petridou and Maria Moustaki},
  journal={European Journal of Epidemiology},
  year={2000},
  volume={16},
  pages={819-826}
}
Road traffic crashes (RTCs) are responsible for a substantial fraction of morbidity and mortality and are responsible for more years of life lost than most of human diseases. In this review, we have tried to delineate behavioral factors that collectively represent the principal cause of three out of five RTCs and contribute to the causation of most of the remaining. Although sharp distinctions are not always possible, a classification of behavioral factors is both necessary and feasible. Thus… CONTINUE READING

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Thus , behavioral factors can be distinguished as ( i ) those that reduce capability on a long - term basis ( inexperience , aging , disease and disability , alcoholism , drug abuse ) , ( ii ) those that reduce capability on a short - term basis ( drowsiness , fatigue , acute alcohol intoxication , short term drug effects , binge eating , acute psychological stress , temporary distraction ) , ( iii ) those that promote risk taking behavior with long - term impact ( overestimation of capabilities , macho attitude , habitual speeding , habitual disregard of traffic regulations , indecent driving behavior , non - use of seat belt or helmet , inappropriate sitting while driving , accident proneness ) and ( iv ) those that promote risk taking behavior with short - term impact ( moderate ethanol intake , psychotropic drugs , motor vehicle crime , suicidal behavior , compulsive acts ) .
Thus , behavioral factors can be distinguished as ( i ) those that reduce capability on a long - term basis ( inexperience , aging , disease and disability , alcoholism , drug abuse ) , ( ii ) those that reduce capability on a short - term basis ( drowsiness , fatigue , acute alcohol intoxication , short term drug effects , binge eating , acute psychological stress , temporary distraction ) , ( iii ) those that promote risk taking behavior with long - term impact ( overestimation of capabilities , macho attitude , habitual speeding , habitual disregard of traffic regulations , indecent driving behavior , non - use of seat belt or helmet , inappropriate sitting while driving , accident proneness ) and ( iv ) those that promote risk taking behavior with short - term impact ( moderate ethanol intake , psychotropic drugs , motor vehicle crime , suicidal behavior , compulsive acts ) .
Thus , behavioral factors can be distinguished as ( i ) those that reduce capability on a long - term basis ( inexperience , aging , disease and disability , alcoholism , drug abuse ) , ( ii ) those that reduce capability on a short - term basis ( drowsiness , fatigue , acute alcohol intoxication , short term drug effects , binge eating , acute psychological stress , temporary distraction ) , ( iii ) those that promote risk taking behavior with long - term impact ( overestimation of capabilities , macho attitude , habitual speeding , habitual disregard of traffic regulations , indecent driving behavior , non - use of seat belt or helmet , inappropriate sitting while driving , accident proneness ) and ( iv ) those that promote risk taking behavior with short - term impact ( moderate ethanol intake , psychotropic drugs , motor vehicle crime , suicidal behavior , compulsive acts ) .
Thus , behavioral factors can be distinguished as ( i ) those that reduce capability on a long - term basis ( inexperience , aging , disease and disability , alcoholism , drug abuse ) , ( ii ) those that reduce capability on a short - term basis ( drowsiness , fatigue , acute alcohol intoxication , short term drug effects , binge eating , acute psychological stress , temporary distraction ) , ( iii ) those that promote risk taking behavior with long - term impact ( overestimation of capabilities , macho attitude , habitual speeding , habitual disregard of traffic regulations , indecent driving behavior , non - use of seat belt or helmet , inappropriate sitting while driving , accident proneness ) and ( iv ) those that promote risk taking behavior with short - term impact ( moderate ethanol intake , psychotropic drugs , motor vehicle crime , suicidal behavior , compulsive acts ) .
Thus , behavioral factors can be distinguished as ( i ) those that reduce capability on a long - term basis ( inexperience , aging , disease and disability , alcoholism , drug abuse ) , ( ii ) those that reduce capability on a short - term basis ( drowsiness , fatigue , acute alcohol intoxication , short term drug effects , binge eating , acute psychological stress , temporary distraction ) , ( iii ) those that promote risk taking behavior with long - term impact ( overestimation of capabilities , macho attitude , habitual speeding , habitual disregard of traffic regulations , indecent driving behavior , non - use of seat belt or helmet , inappropriate sitting while driving , accident proneness ) and ( iv ) those that promote risk taking behavior with short - term impact ( moderate ethanol intake , psychotropic drugs , motor vehicle crime , suicidal behavior , compulsive acts ) .
Thus , behavioral factors can be distinguished as ( i ) those that reduce capability on a long - term basis ( inexperience , aging , disease and disability , alcoholism , drug abuse ) , ( ii ) those that reduce capability on a short - term basis ( drowsiness , fatigue , acute alcohol intoxication , short term drug effects , binge eating , acute psychological stress , temporary distraction ) , ( iii ) those that promote risk taking behavior with long - term impact ( overestimation of capabilities , macho attitude , habitual speeding , habitual disregard of traffic regulations , indecent driving behavior , non - use of seat belt or helmet , inappropriate sitting while driving , accident proneness ) and ( iv ) those that promote risk taking behavior with short - term impact ( moderate ethanol intake , psychotropic drugs , motor vehicle crime , suicidal behavior , compulsive acts ) .
Thus , behavioral factors can be distinguished as ( i ) those that reduce capability on a long - term basis ( inexperience , aging , disease and disability , alcoholism , drug abuse ) , ( ii ) those that reduce capability on a short - term basis ( drowsiness , fatigue , acute alcohol intoxication , short term drug effects , binge eating , acute psychological stress , temporary distraction ) , ( iii ) those that promote risk taking behavior with long - term impact ( overestimation of capabilities , macho attitude , habitual speeding , habitual disregard of traffic regulations , indecent driving behavior , non - use of seat belt or helmet , inappropriate sitting while driving , accident proneness ) and ( iv ) those that promote risk taking behavior with short - term impact ( moderate ethanol intake , psychotropic drugs , motor vehicle crime , suicidal behavior , compulsive acts ) .
Thus , behavioral factors can be distinguished as ( i ) those that reduce capability on a long - term basis ( inexperience , aging , disease and disability , alcoholism , drug abuse ) , ( ii ) those that reduce capability on a short - term basis ( drowsiness , fatigue , acute alcohol intoxication , short term drug effects , binge eating , acute psychological stress , temporary distraction ) , ( iii ) those that promote risk taking behavior with long - term impact ( overestimation of capabilities , macho attitude , habitual speeding , habitual disregard of traffic regulations , indecent driving behavior , non - use of seat belt or helmet , inappropriate sitting while driving , accident proneness ) and ( iv ) those that promote risk taking behavior with short - term impact ( moderate ethanol intake , psychotropic drugs , motor vehicle crime , suicidal behavior , compulsive acts ) .
Thus , behavioral factors can be distinguished as ( i ) those that reduce capability on a long - term basis ( inexperience , aging , disease and disability , alcoholism , drug abuse ) , ( ii ) those that reduce capability on a short - term basis ( drowsiness , fatigue , acute alcohol intoxication , short term drug effects , binge eating , acute psychological stress , temporary distraction ) , ( iii ) those that promote risk taking behavior with long - term impact ( overestimation of capabilities , macho attitude , habitual speeding , habitual disregard of traffic regulations , indecent driving behavior , non - use of seat belt or helmet , inappropriate sitting while driving , accident proneness ) and ( iv ) those that promote risk taking behavior with short - term impact ( moderate ethanol intake , psychotropic drugs , motor vehicle crime , suicidal behavior , compulsive acts ) .
Thus , behavioral factors can be distinguished as ( i ) those that reduce capability on a long - term basis ( inexperience , aging , disease and disability , alcoholism , drug abuse ) , ( ii ) those that reduce capability on a short - term basis ( drowsiness , fatigue , acute alcohol intoxication , short term drug effects , binge eating , acute psychological stress , temporary distraction ) , ( iii ) those that promote risk taking behavior with long - term impact ( overestimation of capabilities , macho attitude , habitual speeding , habitual disregard of traffic regulations , indecent driving behavior , non - use of seat belt or helmet , inappropriate sitting while driving , accident proneness ) and ( iv ) those that promote risk taking behavior with short - term impact ( moderate ethanol intake , psychotropic drugs , motor vehicle crime , suicidal behavior , compulsive acts ) .
Thus , behavioral factors can be distinguished as ( i ) those that reduce capability on a long - term basis ( inexperience , aging , disease and disability , alcoholism , drug abuse ) , ( ii ) those that reduce capability on a short - term basis ( drowsiness , fatigue , acute alcohol intoxication , short term drug effects , binge eating , acute psychological stress , temporary distraction ) , ( iii ) those that promote risk taking behavior with long - term impact ( overestimation of capabilities , macho attitude , habitual speeding , habitual disregard of traffic regulations , indecent driving behavior , non - use of seat belt or helmet , inappropriate sitting while driving , accident proneness ) and ( iv ) those that promote risk taking behavior with short - term impact ( moderate ethanol intake , psychotropic drugs , motor vehicle crime , suicidal behavior , compulsive acts ) .
Thus , behavioral factors can be distinguished as ( i ) those that reduce capability on a long - term basis ( inexperience , aging , disease and disability , alcoholism , drug abuse ) , ( ii ) those that reduce capability on a short - term basis ( drowsiness , fatigue , acute alcohol intoxication , short term drug effects , binge eating , acute psychological stress , temporary distraction ) , ( iii ) those that promote risk taking behavior with long - term impact ( overestimation of capabilities , macho attitude , habitual speeding , habitual disregard of traffic regulations , indecent driving behavior , non - use of seat belt or helmet , inappropriate sitting while driving , accident proneness ) and ( iv ) those that promote risk taking behavior with short - term impact ( moderate ethanol intake , psychotropic drugs , motor vehicle crime , suicidal behavior , compulsive acts ) .
Thus , behavioral factors can be distinguished as ( i ) those that reduce capability on a long - term basis ( inexperience , aging , disease and disability , alcoholism , drug abuse ) , ( ii ) those that reduce capability on a short - term basis ( drowsiness , fatigue , acute alcohol intoxication , short term drug effects , binge eating , acute psychological stress , temporary distraction ) , ( iii ) those that promote risk taking behavior with long - term impact ( overestimation of capabilities , macho attitude , habitual speeding , habitual disregard of traffic regulations , indecent driving behavior , non - use of seat belt or helmet , inappropriate sitting while driving , accident proneness ) and ( iv ) those that promote risk taking behavior with short - term impact ( moderate ethanol intake , psychotropic drugs , motor vehicle crime , suicidal behavior , compulsive acts ) .
Thus , behavioral factors can be distinguished as ( i ) those that reduce capability on a long - term basis ( inexperience , aging , disease and disability , alcoholism , drug abuse ) , ( ii ) those that reduce capability on a short - term basis ( drowsiness , fatigue , acute alcohol intoxication , short term drug effects , binge eating , acute psychological stress , temporary distraction ) , ( iii ) those that promote risk taking behavior with long - term impact ( overestimation of capabilities , macho attitude , habitual speeding , habitual disregard of traffic regulations , indecent driving behavior , non - use of seat belt or helmet , inappropriate sitting while driving , accident proneness ) and ( iv ) those that promote risk taking behavior with short - term impact ( moderate ethanol intake , psychotropic drugs , motor vehicle crime , suicidal behavior , compulsive acts ) .
Thus , behavioral factors can be distinguished as ( i ) those that reduce capability on a long - term basis ( inexperience , aging , disease and disability , alcoholism , drug abuse ) , ( ii ) those that reduce capability on a short - term basis ( drowsiness , fatigue , acute alcohol intoxication , short term drug effects , binge eating , acute psychological stress , temporary distraction ) , ( iii ) those that promote risk taking behavior with long - term impact ( overestimation of capabilities , macho attitude , habitual speeding , habitual disregard of traffic regulations , indecent driving behavior , non - use of seat belt or helmet , inappropriate sitting while driving , accident proneness ) and ( iv ) those that promote risk taking behavior with short - term impact ( moderate ethanol intake , psychotropic drugs , motor vehicle crime , suicidal behavior , compulsive acts ) .
Thus , behavioral factors can be distinguished as ( i ) those that reduce capability on a long - term basis ( inexperience , aging , disease and disability , alcoholism , drug abuse ) , ( ii ) those that reduce capability on a short - term basis ( drowsiness , fatigue , acute alcohol intoxication , short term drug effects , binge eating , acute psychological stress , temporary distraction ) , ( iii ) those that promote risk taking behavior with long - term impact ( overestimation of capabilities , macho attitude , habitual speeding , habitual disregard of traffic regulations , indecent driving behavior , non - use of seat belt or helmet , inappropriate sitting while driving , accident proneness ) and ( iv ) those that promote risk taking behavior with short - term impact ( moderate ethanol intake , psychotropic drugs , motor vehicle crime , suicidal behavior , compulsive acts ) .
Thus , behavioral factors can be distinguished as ( i ) those that reduce capability on a long - term basis ( inexperience , aging , disease and disability , alcoholism , drug abuse ) , ( ii ) those that reduce capability on a short - term basis ( drowsiness , fatigue , acute alcohol intoxication , short term drug effects , binge eating , acute psychological stress , temporary distraction ) , ( iii ) those that promote risk taking behavior with long - term impact ( overestimation of capabilities , macho attitude , habitual speeding , habitual disregard of traffic regulations , indecent driving behavior , non - use of seat belt or helmet , inappropriate sitting while driving , accident proneness ) and ( iv ) those that promote risk taking behavior with short - term impact ( moderate ethanol intake , psychotropic drugs , motor vehicle crime , suicidal behavior , compulsive acts ) .
Thus , behavioral factors can be distinguished as ( i ) those that reduce capability on a long - term basis ( inexperience , aging , disease and disability , alcoholism , drug abuse ) , ( ii ) those that reduce capability on a short - term basis ( drowsiness , fatigue , acute alcohol intoxication , short term drug effects , binge eating , acute psychological stress , temporary distraction ) , ( iii ) those that promote risk taking behavior with long - term impact ( overestimation of capabilities , macho attitude , habitual speeding , habitual disregard of traffic regulations , indecent driving behavior , non - use of seat belt or helmet , inappropriate sitting while driving , accident proneness ) and ( iv ) those that promote risk taking behavior with short - term impact ( moderate ethanol intake , psychotropic drugs , motor vehicle crime , suicidal behavior , compulsive acts ) .
Thus , behavioral factors can be distinguished as ( i ) those that reduce capability on a long - term basis ( inexperience , aging , disease and disability , alcoholism , drug abuse ) , ( ii ) those that reduce capability on a short - term basis ( drowsiness , fatigue , acute alcohol intoxication , short term drug effects , binge eating , acute psychological stress , temporary distraction ) , ( iii ) those that promote risk taking behavior with long - term impact ( overestimation of capabilities , macho attitude , habitual speeding , habitual disregard of traffic regulations , indecent driving behavior , non - use of seat belt or helmet , inappropriate sitting while driving , accident proneness ) and ( iv ) those that promote risk taking behavior with short - term impact ( moderate ethanol intake , psychotropic drugs , motor vehicle crime , suicidal behavior , compulsive acts ) .
Thus , behavioral factors can be distinguished as ( i ) those that reduce capability on a long - term basis ( inexperience , aging , disease and disability , alcoholism , drug abuse ) , ( ii ) those that reduce capability on a short - term basis ( drowsiness , fatigue , acute alcohol intoxication , short term drug effects , binge eating , acute psychological stress , temporary distraction ) , ( iii ) those that promote risk taking behavior with long - term impact ( overestimation of capabilities , macho attitude , habitual speeding , habitual disregard of traffic regulations , indecent driving behavior , non - use of seat belt or helmet , inappropriate sitting while driving , accident proneness ) and ( iv ) those that promote risk taking behavior with short - term impact ( moderate ethanol intake , psychotropic drugs , motor vehicle crime , suicidal behavior , compulsive acts ) .
Thus , behavioral factors can be distinguished as ( i ) those that reduce capability on a long - term basis ( inexperience , aging , disease and disability , alcoholism , drug abuse ) , ( ii ) those that reduce capability on a short - term basis ( drowsiness , fatigue , acute alcohol intoxication , short term drug effects , binge eating , acute psychological stress , temporary distraction ) , ( iii ) those that promote risk taking behavior with long - term impact ( overestimation of capabilities , macho attitude , habitual speeding , habitual disregard of traffic regulations , indecent driving behavior , non - use of seat belt or helmet , inappropriate sitting while driving , accident proneness ) and ( iv ) those that promote risk taking behavior with short - term impact ( moderate ethanol intake , psychotropic drugs , motor vehicle crime , suicidal behavior , compulsive acts ) .
Thus , behavioral factors can be distinguished as ( i ) those that reduce capability on a long - term basis ( inexperience , aging , disease and disability , alcoholism , drug abuse ) , ( ii ) those that reduce capability on a short - term basis ( drowsiness , fatigue , acute alcohol intoxication , short term drug effects , binge eating , acute psychological stress , temporary distraction ) , ( iii ) those that promote risk taking behavior with long - term impact ( overestimation of capabilities , macho attitude , habitual speeding , habitual disregard of traffic regulations , indecent driving behavior , non - use of seat belt or helmet , inappropriate sitting while driving , accident proneness ) and ( iv ) those that promote risk taking behavior with short - term impact ( moderate ethanol intake , psychotropic drugs , motor vehicle crime , suicidal behavior , compulsive acts ) .
Thus , behavioral factors can be distinguished as ( i ) those that reduce capability on a long - term basis ( inexperience , aging , disease and disability , alcoholism , drug abuse ) , ( ii ) those that reduce capability on a short - term basis ( drowsiness , fatigue , acute alcohol intoxication , short term drug effects , binge eating , acute psychological stress , temporary distraction ) , ( iii ) those that promote risk taking behavior with long - term impact ( overestimation of capabilities , macho attitude , habitual speeding , habitual disregard of traffic regulations , indecent driving behavior , non - use of seat belt or helmet , inappropriate sitting while driving , accident proneness ) and ( iv ) those that promote risk taking behavior with short - term impact ( moderate ethanol intake , psychotropic drugs , motor vehicle crime , suicidal behavior , compulsive acts ) .
Thus , behavioral factors can be distinguished as ( i ) those that reduce capability on a long - term basis ( inexperience , aging , disease and disability , alcoholism , drug abuse ) , ( ii ) those that reduce capability on a short - term basis ( drowsiness , fatigue , acute alcohol intoxication , short term drug effects , binge eating , acute psychological stress , temporary distraction ) , ( iii ) those that promote risk taking behavior with long - term impact ( overestimation of capabilities , macho attitude , habitual speeding , habitual disregard of traffic regulations , indecent driving behavior , non - use of seat belt or helmet , inappropriate sitting while driving , accident proneness ) and ( iv ) those that promote risk taking behavior with short - term impact ( moderate ethanol intake , psychotropic drugs , motor vehicle crime , suicidal behavior , compulsive acts ) .
Thus , behavioral factors can be distinguished as ( i ) those that reduce capability on a long - term basis ( inexperience , aging , disease and disability , alcoholism , drug abuse ) , ( ii ) those that reduce capability on a short - term basis ( drowsiness , fatigue , acute alcohol intoxication , short term drug effects , binge eating , acute psychological stress , temporary distraction ) , ( iii ) those that promote risk taking behavior with long - term impact ( overestimation of capabilities , macho attitude , habitual speeding , habitual disregard of traffic regulations , indecent driving behavior , non - use of seat belt or helmet , inappropriate sitting while driving , accident proneness ) and ( iv ) those that promote risk taking behavior with short - term impact ( moderate ethanol intake , psychotropic drugs , motor vehicle crime , suicidal behavior , compulsive acts ) .
Thus , behavioral factors can be distinguished as ( i ) those that reduce capability on a long - term basis ( inexperience , aging , disease and disability , alcoholism , drug abuse ) , ( ii ) those that reduce capability on a short - term basis ( drowsiness , fatigue , acute alcohol intoxication , short term drug effects , binge eating , acute psychological stress , temporary distraction ) , ( iii ) those that promote risk taking behavior with long - term impact ( overestimation of capabilities , macho attitude , habitual speeding , habitual disregard of traffic regulations , indecent driving behavior , non - use of seat belt or helmet , inappropriate sitting while driving , accident proneness ) and ( iv ) those that promote risk taking behavior with short - term impact ( moderate ethanol intake , psychotropic drugs , motor vehicle crime , suicidal behavior , compulsive acts ) .
Thus , behavioral factors can be distinguished as ( i ) those that reduce capability on a long - term basis ( inexperience , aging , disease and disability , alcoholism , drug abuse ) , ( ii ) those that reduce capability on a short - term basis ( drowsiness , fatigue , acute alcohol intoxication , short term drug effects , binge eating , acute psychological stress , temporary distraction ) , ( iii ) those that promote risk taking behavior with long - term impact ( overestimation of capabilities , macho attitude , habitual speeding , habitual disregard of traffic regulations , indecent driving behavior , non - use of seat belt or helmet , inappropriate sitting while driving , accident proneness ) and ( iv ) those that promote risk taking behavior with short - term impact ( moderate ethanol intake , psychotropic drugs , motor vehicle crime , suicidal behavior , compulsive acts ) .
Thus , behavioral factors can be distinguished as ( i ) those that reduce capability on a long - term basis ( inexperience , aging , disease and disability , alcoholism , drug abuse ) , ( ii ) those that reduce capability on a short - term basis ( drowsiness , fatigue , acute alcohol intoxication , short term drug effects , binge eating , acute psychological stress , temporary distraction ) , ( iii ) those that promote risk taking behavior with long - term impact ( overestimation of capabilities , macho attitude , habitual speeding , habitual disregard of traffic regulations , indecent driving behavior , non - use of seat belt or helmet , inappropriate sitting while driving , accident proneness ) and ( iv ) those that promote risk taking behavior with short - term impact ( moderate ethanol intake , psychotropic drugs , motor vehicle crime , suicidal behavior , compulsive acts ) .
Thus , behavioral factors can be distinguished as ( i ) those that reduce capability on a long - term basis ( inexperience , aging , disease and disability , alcoholism , drug abuse ) , ( ii ) those that reduce capability on a short - term basis ( drowsiness , fatigue , acute alcohol intoxication , short term drug effects , binge eating , acute psychological stress , temporary distraction ) , ( iii ) those that promote risk taking behavior with long - term impact ( overestimation of capabilities , macho attitude , habitual speeding , habitual disregard of traffic regulations , indecent driving behavior , non - use of seat belt or helmet , inappropriate sitting while driving , accident proneness ) and ( iv ) those that promote risk taking behavior with short - term impact ( moderate ethanol intake , psychotropic drugs , motor vehicle crime , suicidal behavior , compulsive acts ) .
Thus , behavioral factors can be distinguished as ( i ) those that reduce capability on a long - term basis ( inexperience , aging , disease and disability , alcoholism , drug abuse ) , ( ii ) those that reduce capability on a short - term basis ( drowsiness , fatigue , acute alcohol intoxication , short term drug effects , binge eating , acute psychological stress , temporary distraction ) , ( iii ) those that promote risk taking behavior with long - term impact ( overestimation of capabilities , macho attitude , habitual speeding , habitual disregard of traffic regulations , indecent driving behavior , non - use of seat belt or helmet , inappropriate sitting while driving , accident proneness ) and ( iv ) those that promote risk taking behavior with short - term impact ( moderate ethanol intake , psychotropic drugs , motor vehicle crime , suicidal behavior , compulsive acts ) .
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