Human facial beauty

@article{Thornhill1993HumanFB,
  title={Human facial beauty},
  author={Randy Thornhill and Steven W. Gangestad},
  journal={Human Nature},
  year={1993},
  volume={4},
  pages={237-269}
}
It is hypothesized that human faces judged to be attractive by people possess two features—averageness and symmetry—that promoted adaptive mate selection in human evolutionary history by way of production of offspring with parasite resistance. Facial composites made by combining individual faces are judged to be attractive, and more attractive than the majority of individual faces. The composites possess both symmetry and averageness of features. Facial averageness may reflect high individual… 
Facial attractiveness.
  • A. Little
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Wiley interdisciplinary reviews. Cognitive science
  • 2014
TLDR
Overall, facial attractiveness is complex, both in the number of traits that determine attraction and in the large number of factors that can alter attraction to particular faces.
Asymmetry and human facial attractiveness: symmetry may not always be beautiful
  • J. Swaddle, I. Cuthill
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences
  • 1995
TLDR
This experiment suggests fluctuating asymmetry is relatively unimportant compared with directional asymmetry, and manipulations that alter asymmetry within a face without altering the mean size of facial features render naturally asymmetric features symmetrical.
Facial symmetry and the perception of beauty
Evolutionary, as well as cultural, pressures may contribute to our perceptions of facial attractiveness. Biologists predict that facial symmetry should be attractive, because it may signal mate
Human and Non-Human Primate Preferences for Faces and Facial Attractiveness
For humans and non-human primates (NHPs) the face represents a particularly important source of social information providing a means of conspecific recognition and cues to personal details including
Visible skin condition and perception of human facial appearance
TLDR
There is now accumulating evidence that skin pigmentation and skin surface topography cues have a significant influence on attractiveness judgements, as they seem primarily to signal aspects of age and health.
Genetic Diversity Revealed in Human Faces
Abstract From an evolutionary perspective, human facial attractiveness is proposed to signal mate quality. Using a novel approach to the study of the genetic basis of human preferences for facial
The Body and Face of Woman: One Ornament that Signals Quality?
Abstract Evidence has accumulated in recent years supporting the hypothesis that both facial and bodily physical attractiveness in humans are certifications of developmental and hormonal health. Such
Female appearance: facial and bodily attractiveness as shape
Human physical attractiveness is supposed to reflect developmental stability (i.e. the ability of individuals to maintain stable development of their morphology under a given environmental condition)
The evolutionary psychology of facial beauty.
  • G. Rhodes
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Annual review of psychology
  • 2006
TLDR
It is argued that both kinds of selection pressures may have shaped the authors' perceptions of facial beauty.
Perceived Health Contributes to the Attractiveness of Facial Symmetry, Averageness, and Sexual Dimorphism
TLDR
Test results show that perceptions of attractiveness are sensitive to a healthy appearance, and are consistent with the hypothesis that preferences for these traits may be adaptations for mate choice.
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TLDR
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Abstract Contemporary mate preferences can provide important clues to human reproductive history. Little is known about which characteristics people value in potential mates. Five predictions were
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