Human facial beauty

  title={Human facial beauty},
  author={Randy Thornhill and Steven W. Gangestad},
  journal={Human Nature},
It is hypothesized that human faces judged to be attractive by people possess two features—averageness and symmetry—that promoted adaptive mate selection in human evolutionary history by way of production of offspring with parasite resistance. Facial composites made by combining individual faces are judged to be attractive, and more attractive than the majority of individual faces. The composites possess both symmetry and averageness of features. Facial averageness may reflect high individual… 
Facial attractiveness.
  • A. Little
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Wiley interdisciplinary reviews. Cognitive science
  • 2014
Overall, facial attractiveness is complex, both in the number of traits that determine attraction and in the large number of factors that can alter attraction to particular faces.
Asymmetry and human facial attractiveness: symmetry may not always be beautiful
  • J. Swaddle, I. Cuthill
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences
  • 1995
This experiment suggests fluctuating asymmetry is relatively unimportant compared with directional asymmetry, and manipulations that alter asymmetry within a face without altering the mean size of facial features render naturally asymmetric features symmetrical.
Facial symmetry and the perception of beauty
Evolutionary, as well as cultural, pressures may contribute to our perceptions of facial attractiveness. Biologists predict that facial symmetry should be attractive, because it may signal mate
Human and Non-Human Primate Preferences for Faces and Facial Attractiveness
For humans and non-human primates (NHPs) the face represents a particularly important source of social information providing a means of conspecific recognition and cues to personal details including
Visible skin condition and perception of human facial appearance
There is now accumulating evidence that skin pigmentation and skin surface topography cues have a significant influence on attractiveness judgements, as they seem primarily to signal aspects of age and health.
Genetic Diversity Revealed in Human Faces
Abstract From an evolutionary perspective, human facial attractiveness is proposed to signal mate quality. Using a novel approach to the study of the genetic basis of human preferences for facial
The Body and Face of Woman: One Ornament that Signals Quality?
Abstract Evidence has accumulated in recent years supporting the hypothesis that both facial and bodily physical attractiveness in humans are certifications of developmental and hormonal health. Such
Female appearance: facial and bodily attractiveness as shape
Human physical attractiveness is supposed to reflect developmental stability (i.e. the ability of individuals to maintain stable development of their morphology under a given environmental condition)
The evolutionary psychology of facial beauty.
  • G. Rhodes
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Annual review of psychology
  • 2006
It is argued that both kinds of selection pressures may have shaped the authors' perceptions of facial beauty.
Perceived Health Contributes to the Attractiveness of Facial Symmetry, Averageness, and Sexual Dimorphism
Test results show that perceptions of attractiveness are sensitive to a healthy appearance, and are consistent with the hypothesis that preferences for these traits may be adaptations for mate choice.


Measuring the physical in physical attractiveness: quasi-experiments on the sociobiology of female facial beauty
Two quasi-experiments investigated the relation between specific adult female facial features and the attraction, attribution, and altruistic responses of adult males. Precise measurements were
What do women want? Facialmetric assessment of multiple motives in the perception of male facial physical attractiveness.
Three quasi-experiments demonstrated that men who possessed the neotenous features of large eyes, the mature features of prominent cheekbones and a large chin, the expressive feature of a big smile, and high-status clothing were seen as more attractive than other men.
Attractive Faces Are Only Average
Scientists and philosophers have searched for centuries for a parsimonious answer to the question of what constitutes beauty. We approached this problem from both an evolutionary and
Article Commentary: Averaged Faces Are Attractive, but Very Attractive Faces Are Not Average
In a recent article, Langlois and Roggman (1990) argue that “attractive faces are only average” and support this theory with composite faces produced by digitized image processing. While we agree
Patterns of fluctuating asymmetry in avian feather ornaments: implications for models of sexual selection
The predictions that sexual ornaments should show a larger degree of fluctuating asymmetry than other morphological traits or than homologous traits in non ornamented species and the negative relation between ornament size and degree of asymmetry suggest that fluctuate asymmetry in ornament reliably reflects male phenotypic quality.
Facial attractiveness, developmental stability, and fluctuating asymmetry.
Abstract Despite robust cross-cultural reliability of human facial attractiveness ratings, research on facial attractiveness has only superficially addressed the connection between facial
On the universality of human nature and the uniqueness of the individual: the role of genetics and adaptation.
An evolutionary approach to psychological variation reconceptualizes traits as either the output of species-typical, adaptively designed development and psychological mechanisms, or as the result of genetic noise creating perturbations in these mechanisms.
Human Assortative Mating and Genetic Equilibrium: An Evolutionary Perspective
Assortative mating in human and other animal species is reviewed, and early imprinting and learning within the family unit act as the proximate mechanisms to establish the criteria for optimal mate selection.
What is beautiful is good.
The present results indicate a "what is beautiful is good" stereotype along the physical attractiveness dimension with no Sex of Judge X Sex of Stimulus interaction, which has implications on self-concept development and the course of social interaction.
Sex differences in human mate preferences: Evolutionary hypotheses tested in 37 cultures
  • D. Buss
  • Psychology
    Behavioral and Brain Sciences
  • 1989
Abstract Contemporary mate preferences can provide important clues to human reproductive history. Little is known about which characteristics people value in potential mates. Five predictions were