Human evolution: Out of Ethiopia

  title={Human evolution: Out of Ethiopia},
  author={Christopher B. Stringer},
Newly discovered fossils from Ethiopia provide fresh evidence for the 'out of Africa' model for the origin of modern humans, and raise new questions about the precise pattern of human evolution. 

The origin of modern anatomy: By speciation or intraspecific evolution?

“Speciation remains the special case, the less frequent and more elusive phenomenon, often arising by default” (p 164). 1

A structured ancestral population for the evolution of modern humans.

The Gran Dolina-TD6 Human Fossil Remains and the Origin of Neanderthals

It is hypothesize either that there exists a phylogenetic continuity between Homo antecessor and Neanderthals or that both species shared a common ancestor.

Evolution of Homo sapiens in Asia: an alternative implication of the “Out-of-Africa” model based on mitochondrial DNA data

The observations by Cann et al. suggest the full/near full replacement of mtDNA in the human past, but do not necessarily imply the total replacement of indigenous populations with African migrants.

Reconstructing human origins in the genomic era

The different genetic and statistical methods that are available for studying human population history are discussed, and the most plausible models of human evolution that can accommodate the contrasting patterns observed at different loci throughout the genome are identified.

Human origin and migration deciphered from a novel genomic footprints of mitochondrial sequences

This study roughly estimates the existence of the archaic human at 800-900 kilo years ago and presence of human in Africa at 600-700 kiloyears ago, and proposes a new method to derive the bootstrap replica from the genome sequences by considering the genetic variance to demonstrate the robustness of the obtained trees.

Pan‐Africanism vs. single‐origin of Homo sapiens: Putting the debate in the light of evolutionary biology

It is suggested that a synthesis is possible and a scenario that, in the view, better reconciles with consolidated expectations in evolutionary theory is proposed, which indicates cladogenesis in allopatry as an ordinary pattern for the origin of a new species, particularly during phases of marked climatic and environmental instability.

Inter‐Regional Comparisons on the Quaternary Large Mammalian Faunas between China and Sub‐Saharan Africa

Comparison of the Chinese fauna shows that the communication of faunas between Africa and East Asia could have occurred during the Neogene, but it was very limited during the Pleistocene, and the implications of the limited faunal interchanges between China and Africa are not completely clear.



Modern human origins: progress and prospects.

  • C. Stringer
  • Psychology
    Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
  • 2002
It is concluded that a recent African origin can be supported for H. sapiens, morphologically, behaviourally and genetically, but that more evidence will be needed, both from Africa and elsewhere, before an absolute African origin for the authors' species and its behavioural characteristics can be established and explained.

Pleistocene Homo sapiens from Middle Awash, Ethiopia

Fossilized hominid crania from Herto, Middle Awash, Ethiopia are described and provide crucial evidence on the location, timing and contextual circumstances of the emergence of Homo sapiens.

Towards a theory of modern human origins: geography, demography, and diversity in recent human evolution.

It is argued that the Neanderthal and modern lineages share a common ancestor in an African population between 350,000 and 250,000 years ago rather than in the earlier Middle Pleistocene; this ancestral population, which developed mode 3 technology (Levallois/Middle Stone Age), dispersed across Africa and western Eurasia in a warmer period prior to independent evolution towards Neanderthals and modern humans in stage 6.

Stratigraphic, chronological and behavioural contexts of Pleistocene Homo sapiens from Middle Awash, Ethiopia

Stratigraphically associated Late Middle Pleistocene artefacts and fossils from fluvial and lake margin sandstones of the Upper Herto Member of the Bouri Formation, Middle Awash, Afar Rift, Ethiopia and archaeological assemblages contain elements of both Acheulean and Middle Stone Age technocomplexes.

The evolution and development of cranial form in Homo sapiens

Cranial variation among Pleistocene and recent human fossils is examined by using a model of cranial growth to identify unique derived features (autapomorphies) that reliably distinguish fossils attributed to “anatomically modern” H. sapiens from those attributed to various taxa of “archaic” Homo spp.

Human Roots*: Africa and Asia in the Middle Pleistocene

1 After 'After the Australopithecines' Hilary J Deacon 2 Mid-Pleistocene environmental change and human evolution Richard Potts 3 Mode 3, Homo helmei, and the pattern of human evolution in the Middle

Mitochondrial genome variation and the origin of modern humans

The global mtDNA diversity in humans is described based on analyses of the complete mtDNA sequence of 53 humans of diverse origins, providing a concurrent view on human evolution with respect to the age of modern humans.

The revolution that wasn't: a new interpretation of the origin of modern human behavior.

The African Middle and early Late Pleistocene hominid fossil record is fairly continuous and in it can be recognized a number of probably distinct species that provide plausible ancestors for H. sapiens, and suggests a gradual assembling of the package of modern human behaviors in Africa, and its later export to other regions of the Old World.