Human ectoparasites and the spread of plague in Europe during the Second Pandemic

@article{Dean2018HumanEA,
  title={Human ectoparasites and the spread of plague in Europe during the Second Pandemic},
  author={Katharine R. Dean and Fabienne Krauer and Lars Wall{\o}e and Ole Christian Lingj{\ae}rde and Barbara Bramanti and Nils Chr. Stenseth and Boris V. Schmid},
  journal={Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America},
  year={2018},
  volume={115},
  pages={1304 - 1309}
}
Significance Plague is infamous as the cause of the Black Death (1347–1353) and later Second Pandemic (14th to 19th centuries CE), when devastating epidemics occurred throughout Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa. Despite the historical significance of the disease, the mechanisms underlying the spread of plague in Europe are poorly understood. While it is commonly assumed that rats and their fleas spread plague during the Second Pandemic, there is little historical and archaeological… Expand
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