Human dopamine D1 receptor encoded by an intronless gene on chromosome 5

@article{Sunahara1990HumanDD,
  title={Human dopamine D1 receptor encoded by an intronless gene on chromosome 5},
  author={Roger K. Sunahara and Hyman B. Niznik and David M Weiner and Thomas M. Stormann and Mark R. Brann and James L. Kennedy and Joel Gelernter and Richard F. Rozmahel and Yili Yang and Yedy Israel and Philip Seeman and Brian F O'dowd},
  journal={Nature},
  year={1990},
  volume={347},
  pages={80-83}
}
RECEPTORS for dopamine have been classified into two functional types, D1 and D2 (refs 1,2). They belong to the family of receptors acting through G (or guanine nucleotide-binding) proteins3. D2 receptors inhibit adenylyl cyclase, but D1 receptors stimulate adenylyl cyclase and activate cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases4,5. Dopamine D1 and D2 receptors are targets of drug therapy in many psychomotor disorders, including Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia6,7, and may also have a role in… 

Cloning of the gene for a human dopamine D5 receptor with higher affinity for dopamine than D1

The cloning of a gene encoding a 477-amino-acid protein with strong homology to the cloned Dt receptor is reported here the existence of a dopamine D1-like receptor with these characteristics had not been predicted and may represent an alternative pathway for dopamine-mediated events and regulation of D2 receptor activity.

Cloning of the gene for a human dopamine D4 receptor with high affinity for the antipsychotic clozapine

The cloning of a gene that encodes a dopamine receptor gene that has high homology to the human dopamine D2 and D3 receptor genes is reported, which suggests the existence of other types of dopamine receptors which are more sensitive to clozapine.

Gene and Promoter Structures of the Dopamine Receptors

All the evidence suggests that the genes encoding the dopamine receptor subtypes have diverse transcriptional regulation mechanisms that result in cell-specific expression patterns that are coupled with different molecular functions.

Dopamine Receptors and Antipsychotic Drug Response

This review summarises what is currently understood about dopamine receptors, their role in antipsychotic drug action, and their association with psychosis.

Dopamine receptor genes: new tools for molecular psychiatry.

Recent work on the cloning and characterization of some of the members of the dopamine receptor gene family (D1, D2, D4, D5), their relationship to neuropsychiatric disorders and their potential role in antipsychotic drug action is reviewed.

The Dopamine D1D Receptor

The isolation of four distinct vertebrate dopamine D1 receptor subtypes suggests the existence of additional mammalian D1 like receptor genes that may account for the observed pharmacological and biochemical multiplicity of dopamine D 1-like receptor mediated events.

Functional coupling of human D2, D3, and D4 dopamine receptors in HEK293 cells.

In these cells, activation of D2, D3 or D4 receptors resulted in the inhibition of forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in a dose responsive manner, and ribonuclease protection studies demonstrated the presence of D4 dopamine receptor mRNA in human brain regions.

The renal dopamine receptors.

Dopamine is an endogenous catecholamine that modulates many functions including behavior, movement, nerve conduction, hormone synthesis and release, blood pressure, and ion fluxes and has been postulated to act as an intrarenal natriuretic hormone.
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References

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The D1-D2 link may be mediated by guanine nucleotide-binding protein components influencing behavior, since the link was missing in over half the postmortem striata from patients with schizophrenia and Huntington disease but was present in human control, Alzheimer, and Parkinson striata.

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A variety of biochemical, behavioral, and electrophysiological evidence is presented which supports the view that D1 and D2 DA receptors can interact in both an opposing and synergistic fashion.

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Human brain D1 and D2 dopamine receptors in schizophrenia, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases.

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The isolation and sequencing of a number of G protein-coupled receptors has now provided extensive primary structure information for this family of homologous proteins, suggesting that the family of proteins may grow to include receptors for many neurotransmitters and perhaps many peptide hormones.

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