Human defensive behaviors to threat scenarios show parallels to fear- and anxiety-related defense patterns of non-human mammals

@article{Blanchard2001HumanDB,
  title={Human defensive behaviors to threat scenarios show parallels to fear- and anxiety-related defense patterns of non-human mammals},
  author={D. Caroline Blanchard and A. Hynd and Karl A. Minke and Tiffanie Minemoto and Robert J. Blanchard},
  journal={Neuroscience \& Biobehavioral Reviews},
  year={2001},
  volume={25},
  pages={761-770}
}
Translating dynamic defense patterns from rodents to people
  • D. Blanchard
  • Psychology
    Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews
  • 2017
Exploring the Structure of Human Defensive Responses from Judgments of Threat Scenarios
TLDR
This study sought to extend prior investigations of human judgments of threat to a broader set of threats, including natural disasters, threats from animals, and psychological (as opposed to physical) threats, to test whether dimensional and specific patterns of threat evaluation replicate across different threat classes.
Advancing the defensive explanation for anxiety disorders: lorazepam effects on human defense are systematically modulated by personality and threat-type
TLDR
This new finding is interpreted as suggesting that lorazepam has a broader effect on defense in humans than in rodents, perhaps by modulating general perceptions of threat intensity, which influence effects observed on one-way or two-way active avoidance demanded by the situation.
Defensive responses to threat scenarios in Brazilians reproduce the pattern of Hawaiian Americans and non-human mammals.
TLDR
The results from the Brazilian sample suggest that a basic repertoire of defensive strategies is conserved along the mammalian evolution because they share similar functional benefits in maintaining fitness.
Personality and defensive reactions: fear, trait anxiety, and threat magnification.
TLDR
Results suggest that interindividual variance in defensive reactions is associated with a variety of existing personality constructs but that further research is required to determine the precise relationship between personality and defensive reactions.
How fear differs from anxiety
TLDR
Differences in the way humans experience anxiety and fear are examined at both a phenomenological and neurological level are examined and implications for the treatment of conditioned fear in PTSD are highlighted.
Effects of Lorazepam and Citalopram on Human Defensive Reactions: Ethopharmacological Differentiation of Fear and Anxiety
TLDR
Data support the hypothesis that anxiety is an emotion elicited by threat stimuli that require approach, and contribute to the validation of a novel human analog of an established experimental model of rodent fear and anxiety.
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References

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Risk assessment in animal models of anxiety
Analysis of the pattern of defensive behaviours in semi-natural situations suggests a long-duration process in which high level freezing/movement arrest gradually gives way to active risk assessment
Defensive behavior of laboratory and wild Rattus norvegicus.
TLDR
Comparisons of the defensive reactions of wild-trapped and laboratory-bred wild rats to a variety of threatening stimuli indicated that the two wild strains were similar and consistently more defensive than laboratory rats to both human and conspecific threat stimuli.
The Primate Amygdala Mediates Acute Fear But Not the Behavioral and Physiological Components of Anxious Temperament
TLDR
It is demonstrated that the primate amygdala is involved in mediating some acute unconditioned fear responses but the notion that the amygdala is the key structure underlying the dispositional behavioral and physiological characteristics of anxious temperament is challenged.
Ontogeny and stability of separation and threat‐induced defensive behaviors in rhesus monkeys during the first year of life
TLDR
The data support the hypothesis that these different defensive responses in rhesus monkeys reflect different adaptive responses that likely have different underlying mechanisms and demonstrate important differences in the developmental patterns for the expression of cooing and freezing over the first year of life.
Ethoexperimental approaches to the study of behavior
TLDR
This chapter discusses Ethoexperimental Analysis of Stress, Contextual Odors, and Defensive Behaviors in Chronic Stress Conditions, and Behavioral Coping in Chronic stress conditions.
Habituation of the hiding response to cat odor in rats (Rattus norvegicus).
TLDR
Cat odor-induced hiding was examined in rats using an apparatus with a "hide box" at one end and a piece of a worn cat collar at the other end, casting some doubt on claims that predatory odors in rats are akin to phobic stimuli in humans.
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