Human contribution to the European heatwave of 2003

@article{Stott2004HumanCT,
  title={Human contribution to the European heatwave of 2003},
  author={Peter Stott and D. A. Stone and Myles Allen},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2004},
  volume={432},
  pages={610-614}
}
The summer of 2003 was probably the hottest in Europe since at latest ad 1500, and unusually large numbers of heat-related deaths were reported in France, Germany and Italy. It is an ill-posed question whether the 2003 heatwave was caused, in a simple deterministic sense, by a modification of the external influences on climate—for example, increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere—because almost any such weather event might have occurred by chance in an unmodified climate… Expand

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