Human contribution to the European heatwave of 2003

  title={Human contribution to the European heatwave of 2003},
  author={Peter Stott and D. A. Stone and Myles R. Allen},
The summer of 2003 was probably the hottest in Europe since at latest ad 1500, and unusually large numbers of heat-related deaths were reported in France, Germany and Italy. It is an ill-posed question whether the 2003 heatwave was caused, in a simple deterministic sense, by a modification of the external influences on climate—for example, increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere—because almost any such weather event might have occurred by chance in an unmodified climate… 

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