Human and swine hepatitis E viruses from Western India belong to different genotypes.

  title={Human and swine hepatitis E viruses from Western India belong to different genotypes.},
  author={Vidya Avinash Arankalle and Leenata P Chobe and Manohar V Joshi and Mandeep Chadha and Biduth Kundu and Atul Madhukar Walimbe},
  journal={Journal of hepatology},
  volume={36 3},

Hepatitis E virus infection among animals in northern India: an unlikely source of human disease

The swine HEV in India differs genetically from human HEV isolates, indicating that pigs may not play an important role in the spread of human hepatitis E in endemic regions.

Identification of Swine Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) and Prevalence of Anti-HEV Antibodies in Swine and Human Populations in Korea

Overall, this study indicates that subclinical HEV infections may prevail in swine and human populations in Korea.

Molecular analysis of swine hepatitis E virus from north India

The present study suggests that genotype 4 ‘e’ is prevalent in the north India, and three new sequences observed in the present study showed nucleotide similarity with other swine sequences from southern and western India.

The detection and characterization of hepatitis E virus in pig livers from retail markets of India

  • M. KulkarniV.A. Arankalle
  • Biology
    Journal of medical virology
  • 2008
Nucleotide sequence‐based phylogenetic analysis showed the presence of genotype 4 HEV with 90–91% similarity and clustering with Indian swine HEV sequences generated earlier, suggesting the possibility of HEV infection in persons consuming infected pig liver.

Molecular characterisation of Hepatitis E virus isolates from north India.

Detection and Genetic Characterization of Isolates of Hepatitis E Virus from Pigs and Human in Chungnam Region of Korea

To investigate the prevalence of HEV infections among the pigs and human population in Chungnam region using a nested RT-PCR for detection of a part ofHEV ORF2 gene, a total of 18 HEV strains, comprising 16 strains from pig and 2 strains from human, were genetically isolated from the stool samples.

Hepatitis E Virus Infection in Central China Reveals No Evidence of Cross-Species Transmission between Human and Swine in This Area

Although all the HEV strains prevalent in central China belonged to genotype 4, there is no evidence of cross-species transmission between human and swine in this area, which suggested that no cross- species transmission between swine and humans had taken place in this areas.

Swine hepatitis E virus strains in Japan form four phylogenetic clusters comparable with those of Japanese isolates of human hepatitis E virus.

Swine HEV is widespread in the Japanese swine population and the hypothesis that swine serve as reservoirs for HEV infection is supported.

Acute hepatitis E in India appears to be caused exclusively by genotype 1 hepatitis E virus

Human sporadic acute hepatitis E in India is caused almost exclusively by genotype 1 HEV, as determined in a group of patients with such disease.

Hepatitis E virus infections in swine and swine handlers in Vellore, Southern India.

  • R. VivekG. Kang
  • Medicine
    The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene
  • 2011
The HEV genotype circulating in swine in India is different from that of humans, but the higher antibody levels in swinea handlers support the possibility that zoonotic infections may occur.



Clinical and epidemiological implications of swine hepatitis E virus infection

Swine may be a reservoir of HEV and subclinical swine HEV infection may occur, and cross‐reactivity of current anti-HEV assay may account for the high prevalence rate of anti‐HEV in the general population in nonendemic areas.

Prevalence of anti‐hepatitis E virus antibodies in different Indian animal species

The results document varied prevalence of anti‐HEV antibodies in different animal species from India and of inability of Indian pigs and goats to support replication of at least one human strain of HEV.

A divergent genotype of hepatitis E virus in Chinese patients with acute hepatitis.

A novel variant of HEV, referred to here as the Chinese genotype (genotype 4), may be responsible for a significant proportion of cases of acute hepatitis in China, as seen by the fact that 40% of the HEV-infected patients in this study were genotype 4 positive.

Molecular characterization of a hepatitis E virus isolate from Namibia.

Phylogenetic analysis indicated that HEV 83-Namibia is closely related to other African isolates, and differs from Burmese, Mexican and Chinese HEV, suggesting this subgenotype of HEV is firmly established throughout the continent.

A novel virus in swine is closely related to the human hepatitis E virus.

  • X. MengR. Purcell S. Emerson
  • Biology, Medicine
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1997
The discovery of swine HEV not only has implications for HEV vaccine development, diagnosis, and biology, but also raises a potential public health concern for zoonosis or xenozoonosis following xenotransplantation with pig organs.

Detection of hepatitis E virus infections among domestic swine in the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal.

Results indicate that HEV is a zoonotic virus, and that swine are among its natural hosts.

Novel hepatitis E virus (HEV) isolates from Europe: Evidence for additional genotypes of HEV

Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the Italian and two Greek isolates represent three new genotypes of HEV, distinct from the Burmese, Mexican, and US genotypes.

Genetic and Experimental Evidence for Cross-Species Infection by Swine Hepatitis E Virus

The results suggested that swine HEV may infect humans, and in a reciprocal experiment, specific-pathogen-free pigs were experimentally infected with the US-2 strain of human HEV that is genetically similar to swineHEV.

Antibodies against hepatitis E virus in old world monkeys

Results show that either human or simian HEV, or a closely related agent, is circulating among Indian macaques and Titre‐dependent protection of naturally occurring anti‐HEV antibodies supports this view.

Genetic heterogeneity of hepatitis E virus *

Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses were performed to determine the genotypic distribution of HEV isolates, and indicate that HEV may be distributed into at least nine different groups.