Human and novel coronavirus infections in children: a review

  title={Human and novel coronavirus infections in children: a review},
  author={Nipunie S. Rajapakse and Devika Dixit},
  journal={Paediatrics and International Child Health},
  pages={36 - 55}
ABSTRACT Coronaviruses, seven of which are known to infect humans, can cause a spectrum of clinical presentations ranging from asymptomatic infection to severe illness and death. Four human coronaviruses (hCoVs)—229E, HKU1, NL63 and OC43—circulate globally, commonly infect children and typically cause mild upper respiratory tract infections. Three novel coronaviruses of zoonotic origin have emerged during the past two decades: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-1), Middle… 

Letter from Spain

It was revealed that children maintained good therapeutic adherence after lockdown (as 81.7% maintained the same anti-asthmatic treatment), following recommendations given by worldwide scientific societies to those patients with underlying respiratory disease, such as asthma.

Clinical features and severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 structural protein-based serology of Mexican children and adolescents with coronavirus disease 2019

The clinical features and serological response (SARS-CoV-2 structural proteins) of children and adolescents who visited the Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez (October 2020-March 2021) showed that children with comorbidities such as immunosuppression, leukemia, and obesity exhibited the lowest antibody response, whereas those aged 1–5 years with heart disease had the highest levels of antibodies.

Etiological and pathophysiological enigmas of severe coronavirus disease 2019, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and Kawasaki disease

The findings suggest that a common control system of the host may act against severe disease insult and an early proper dose of corticosteroids and/or intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) may help reduce morbidity and possibly mortality among patients with severe COVID-19, KD, and MIS-C.

Respiratory Manifestations of COVID-19 in Children: A Narrative Review

Cough is the most common manifestation of respiratory system involvement in children with COVID-19 and GGO and bilateral patchy involvement are the most most common finding on lung CT scans in children in this study.

Spread of Respiratory Pathogens During the COVID-19 Pandemic Among Children in the Northeast of Italy

It is shown that social isolation measures had an impact on the circulation of RSV and influenza, although children under the age of 2 were most affected by the other respiratory infections, which highlights the need for continuing surveillance for a delayed spread ofRSV and other respiratory pathogens.

Evaluation of human coronavirus OC43 and SARS‐COV‐2 in children with respiratory tract infection during the COVID‐19 pandemic

The same frequency of SARS‐COV‐2 and HCoV‐OC43 was found in children with respiratory symptoms during the COVID‐19 pandemic and the rate of coinfection for the two viruses was the same.

The understanding of SARS-CoV-2 related syndromes

Despite the lower number of deaths in the pediatric age group than adults, higher mortality rates due to COVID-19 in children have been recorded in Brazil compared with other countries, although a reduction in mortality from 8.2% in 2020 to 5.8% in 2021 has already been observed in the population aged 0 to 19 years.

Repurposing Nucleoside Analogs for Human Coronaviruses

A panel of compounds and novel nucleoside analogs with antiviral activity against CoV-2 and HCoV-OC43 while ruling out others were evaluated and sofosbuvir demonstrated no antiviral effect against Cov-2, and its triphosphate did not inhibit CoV -2 RNA polymerase.

Clonal dynamics of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells in children and adults with COVID-19

It is shown by longitudinal multimodal analysis that SARS-CoV-2 leaves a small footprint in the circulating T cell compartment in children with mild/asymptomatic COVID-19 compared to adult household contacts with the same disease severity who had more evidence of systemic T cell interferon activation, cytotoxicity and exhaustion.

Circulation of SARS-CoV-2 Variants among Children from November 2020 to January 2022 in Trieste (Italy)

Attention should be devoted to the pediatric population to prevent the spread of new SARS-CoV-2 variants in an unvaccinated and predominantly naive population to report here in a pediatric population for the first time.



Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Pathogenesis, Disease and Vaccines: An Update

  • M. Denison
  • Medicine, Biology
    The Pediatric infectious disease journal
  • 2004
The availability of reverse genetic systems has made it possible to engineer and recover coronavirus variants that contain multiple genetically stable mutations that grow well in culture but are attenuated for replication, virulence or both and will be platforms for the safe growth of SARS-CoV and candidates for live attenuated vaccines.

A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin

Identification and characterization of a new coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which caused an epidemic of acute respiratory syndrome in humans in Wuhan, China, and it is shown that this virus belongs to the species of SARSr-CoV, indicates that the virus is related to a bat coronav virus.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome vs. the Middle East respiratory syndrome

Although there are some similarities in the clinical features, MERS progresses to respiratory failure much more rapidly than SARS, and the higher case fatality rate of MERS is likely related to older age and comorbid illness.

Human coronaviruses are uncommon in patients with gastrointestinal illness

COVID-19: faecal–oral transmission?

  • J. Hindson
  • Medicine
    Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology
  • 2020
In a clinical characterization of ten paediatric patients with SARSCoV-2 infection in China, none of whom required respiratory support or intensive care and all of whom lacked signs of pneumonia, eight tested positive on rectal swabs, even after nasopharyngeal testing was negative, suggesting another possible route might be faecal–oral transmission.

COVID-19 in Children: Initial Characterization of the Pediatric Disease

Preschool-aged children and infants were more likely than older children to have severe clinical manifestations and the authors found that 4% of virologically confirmed cases had asymptomatic infection, and this rate almost certainly understates the true rate of asymPTomatic infection.

Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus and Children

United States health care providers should be vigilant in assessing children with severe respiratory illnesses and history of recent travel in or near the Arabian Peninsula for MERS-CoV infections.

The species Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus: classifying 2019-nCoV and naming it SARS-CoV-2

  • Alexander E. Susan C. Ralph S. Raoul J. Christian Anastasia Gorbalenya Baker Baric de Groot Drosten Gulyaeva HA. Gorbalenya J. Ziebuhr
  • Biology
    Nature Microbiology
  • 2020
The independent zoonotic transmission of SARS-CoV and SARS -CoV-2 highlights the need for studying viruses at the species level to complement research focused on individual pathogenic viruses of immediate significance.

SARS-CoV-2: virus dynamics and host response