Human and animal study on elimination from plasma and metabolism of diazepam after chronic alcohol intake.

  title={Human and animal study on elimination from plasma and metabolism of diazepam after chronic alcohol intake.},
  author={R. Sellman and Jussi H. Kanto and E Raijola and Aimo Pekkarinen},
  journal={Acta pharmacologica et toxicologica},
  volume={36 1},
: Very significantly lower concentrations of diazepam at 15 minutes and 1 hour after 10 mg intravenous diazepam injection were found in chronic alcoholic patients in comparison to healthy controls. Compared to 13 healthy controls a more rapid elimination of diazepam from the plasma of 14 chronic alcoholic patients during their alcohol-free period was observed. The alcoholics had a smaller concentration of the diazepam main metabolite, N-demethyl-diazepam, and at 3 hours this difference was… Expand
Effect of acute alcohol intoxication on the metabolism and plasma kinetics of chlordiazepoxide.
Alcohol exerts significant effects on the metabolism of chlordiazepoxide in acutely intoxicated patients and in a group of patients with acute alcohol intoxication. Expand
Drug Kinetics and Alcohol Ingestion
Systematic studies of the mechanism of alcohol kinetic interactions are needed and such kinetic studies should be combined with pharmacodynamic measures in order to establish the clinical importance of changes in drug kinetics. Expand
Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Drug Interactions with Ethanol (Alcohol)
A study of the literature has shown that a significantly higher volume of clinical studies have focused on the pharmacokinetic interactions of ethanol and other drugs, and future research addressing pharmacodynamic interactions with ethanol, especially regarding the non-central nervous system effects, is much needed. Expand
Effects of Ethanol on Drug and Metabolite Pharmacokinetics
Pharmacokinetic interactions of ethanol with other drugs, including its effects upon drug metabolite disposition, are reviewed in terms of clearance concepts to help understand the mechanisms of ethanol-drug interactions. Expand
Drug Interactions With Alcohol
Ethanol and drugs can affect each other’s absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion, and ethanol can enhance the deleterious effects of sedatives, certain anxiolytics, sedative antidepressants and antipsychotics, and anticholinergic agents, on performance. Expand
Enzyme inducing effects of phenobarbital on nitrazepam metabolism in dogs.
A 6-day peroral phenobarbital treatment of beagle dogs decreased clearly and significantly the mean AUC of a single peroral dose of nitrazepam as a sign of enzyme induction and showed no sign of autoinduction as a single daily dose. Expand
Effects of alcohol-induced increase in CYP2E1 content in human liver microsomes on the activity and cooperativity of CYP3A4.
The results demonstrate that the functional properties of CYP3A4 are fundamentally dependent on the composition of the cytochrome P450 ensemble and suggest a possible impact of chronic alcohol exposure on the pharmacokinetics of drugs metabolized by CYP 3A4. Expand
Influence of Moderate Alcohol Intake on Wakening Plasma Thiopental Concentration
The results indicate that moderate alcohol intake may induce cerebral tolerance to thiopental, and the mechanism behind the apparent cross‐tolerance in women undergoing termination of pregnancy is investigated. Expand
Ethanol metabolism, cirrhosis and alcoholism.
  • C. Lieber
  • Chemistry, Medicine
  • Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry
  • 1997
Polyenylphosphatidylcholine (PPC) fully prevents ethanol-induced septal fibrosis and cirrhosis, opposes ethanol- induced hepatic phospholipid depletion, decreased phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferase activity and activation of hepatic lipocytes, whereas its dilinoleoyl species increases collagenase activity. Expand
Alcohol and drug interactions
This review will attempt to examine the principles involved in alcohol and drug interactions to enable the clinician to at least have an educated guess as to the potential interactions in a particular patient. Expand


Ethanol and induction of microsomal drug-metabolizing enzymes in the rat.
Abstract Male rats receiving a 15% ( v v ) ethanol solution in place of drinking water for 4 wk showed a significant increase in microsomal O-demethylase activity and a slight rise in P-450 content.Expand
Increased Rate of Clearance of Drugs from the Circulation of Alcoholics*
The rate of clearance of a drug from the circulation was measured in alcoholic subjects and in abstinent control subjects. Tolbutamide, warfarin and diphenylhydantoin were studied. All of theExpand
Pharmacokinetic drug interactions.
Clinical experience highlights oral hypoglycaemic agents, anticoagulants, and the use of barbiturates as especially hazardous areas and clinical Pharmacology units could contribute much to the understanding of these problems. Expand
Hepatic Microsomal Enzymes in Man and Rat: Induction and Inhibition by Ethanol
In vitro ethanol inhibited aniline, pentobarbital, and benzpyrene hydroxylases, which may explain the increased tolerance of alcoholics to sedatives when sober, and the enhanced sensitivity to sedative when inebriated. Expand
A psychological and physiological evaluation of the effects of intravenous diazepam.
There had been a significant reduction in Observer and Self-Ratings of anxiety, and this was accompanied by asignificant reduction in physiological arousal, as evidenced by a fall in forearm blood flow and heart rate by the end of the experiment. Expand
Which drug for alcohol withdrawal?
[Drug abuse and addiction to diazepam].