Using a human amyloid beta (Abeta) intracerebroventricular infusion mouse model of Alzheimer's disease-related injury, we previously demonstrated that systemic administration of a glial activation inhibitor could suppress neuroinflammation, prevent synaptic damage, and attenuate hippocampal-dependent behavioral deficits. We report that Abeta-induced neuroinflammation is an early event associated with onset and progression of pathophysiology, can be suppressed by the glial inhibitor over a range of intervention start times, and is amenable to suppression without inhibiting peripheral tissue inflammatory responses. Specifically, hippocampal neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration occur in close time proximity at 4-6 weeks after the start of infusion. Intraperitoneal administration of inhibitor for 2-week intervals starting at various times after initiation of Abeta infusion suppresses progression of pathophysiology. The glial inhibitor is a selective suppressor of neuroinflammation, in that it does not block peripheral tissue production of proinflammatory cytokines or markers of B- and T-cell activation after a systemic lipopolysaccharide challenge. These results support a causal link between neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration, have important implications for future therapeutic development, and provide insight into the relative time window for targeting neuroinflammation with positive neurological outcomes.