Direct effects of interleukin-8 on growth and functional activity of T lymphocytes.
CXCL8 plays a major role in cell recruitment to sites of inflammation. Apart from neutrophils, little is known, however, about the cellular distribution and regulation of CXCL8 receptors in cells involved in acquired and adaptive immune responses. In previous studies, we have demonstrated the extracellular expression and function of CXCR1/2 on mast cells and also detected an intracellular pool of CXCR1/2. Here, we have addressed the question of receptor regulation during stimulation of human mast cells (HMC-1 cell line) and have studied T cells in comparison. Cell permeabilization was performed to detect both surface and possible intracellular receptor pools. HMC-1 cells stained positive for both receptors on the cell surface (CXCR1, 50%; CXCR2, 51%) and also after cell permeabilization (CXCR1, 86%; CXCR2, 74%). Similarly, T cells exhibited both cell-surface receptor expression (CXCR1, 30%; CXCR2, 23%) and higher total receptor expression (CXCR1, 50%; CXCR2, 36%), although overall values were lower than that in HMC-1 cells. On immunoblot, molecular weights of extra- and intracellular receptors on mast cells were the same, excluding altered receptor glycosylation. On stimulation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate plus calcium ionophore, a time-dependent decrease of surface-membrane receptors was observed in both cell types, while total receptor remained the same, suggesting that receptor shedding is not involved. The kinetics of membrane receptor internalization and replenishment differed for the two cell types. Furthermore, receptor internalization was associated with decreased F-actin polymerization, a basic prerequisite for cell migration. These findings demonstrate for the first time the expression of extra- and intracellular CXCR1/2 receptors on T cells and delineate the dynamics of CXCR1/2 receptors on mast cells and T cells. Furthermore, they suggest a cell-type-specific and finely tuned regulation of chemokine responses at the receptor level in the context of inflammation.