Human Genetic Diversity and the Nonexistence of Biological Races

@article{Long2003HumanGD,
  title={Human Genetic Diversity and the Nonexistence of Biological Races},
  author={J. Long and Jeffrey C Rick A Kittles},
  journal={Human Biology},
  year={2003},
  volume={75},
  pages={449 - 471}
}
Sewall Wright's population structure statistic, FST, measured among samples of world populations is often 15% or less. This would indicate that 85% of genetic variation occurs within groups while only 15% can be attributed to allele frequency differences among groups. In this paper, we show that this low value reflects strong biases that result from violating hidden assumptions that define FST. These limitations on FST are demonstrated algebraically and in the context of analyzing dinucleotide… Expand
Update to Long and Kittles's “Human Genetic Diversity and the Nonexistence of Biological Races” (2003): Fixation on an Index
  • J. Long
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Human biology
  • 2009
TLDR
It is found that the genetic and statistical model underlying FST does not fit well to human populations because human population structure strongly biases the outcome of analyses by violating two assumptions: first, that expected genetic diversity is the same in every population; and second, that divergence between all pairs of populations is equal and independent. Expand
Human DNA sequences: more variation and less race.
TLDR
A method of generalized hierarchical modeling is applied to two DNA data sets to see that populations differ in the amount of diversity that they harbor. Expand
Non-Darwinian estimation: my ancestors, my genes' ancestors.
TLDR
Attempts to describe the pattern of genetic variation in the human species generally, including "recreational" genomics, the genome-based estimation of the ancestry of individuals rest on subtle concepts of variation, time, and ancestry that are perhaps not widely appreciated. Expand
Mathematical constraints on FST: multiallelic markers in arbitrarily many populations
TLDR
The mathematical constraint on FST given the frequency M of the most frequent allele at a multiallelic locus in a set of multiple populations is reported, providing the most general description to date of mathematical constraints on F ST in terms of M. Expand
Mathematical Constraints on FST: Biallelic Markers in Arbitrarily Many Populations
TLDR
Examining data on human genetic variation, results obtained for population pairs are generalized to explain the generally smaller FST values between pairs of continents relative to global F ST values. Expand
The Relationship Between FST and the Frequency of the Most Frequent Allele
TLDR
The relationship between FST and the frequency of the most frequent allele is examined, demonstrating that the range of values that FST can take is restricted considerably by the allele-frequency distribution and providing a conceptual basis for understanding the dependence of FST on allele frequencies and genetic diversity. Expand
Purifying selection modulates the estimates of population differentiation and confounds genome-wide comparisons across single-nucleotide polymorphisms.
TLDR
It is discovered that the estimates of population differentiation calculated for human single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are strongly and positively correlated to the position-specific evolutionary rates measured from multispecies alignments, and this pattern is completely mediated by the negative effects of purifying selection on the minor allele frequency at individual loci. Expand
HUMAN GENETIC VARIATION: THE MECHANISMS AND RESULTS OF MICROEVOLUTION ABSTRACT
TLDR
The typical definitions of human races do not fit the patterns of variation in DNA sequences very well, but it is difficult to get a firm handle on race because race concepts are often used in vague and imprecise ways. Expand
Mathematical constraints on FST: biallelic markers in arbitrarily many populations
TLDR
This work generalizes results obtained for population pairs to arbitrarily many populations, characterizing the mathematical relationship between FST, the frequency M of the more frequent allele at a polymorphic biallelic marker, and the number of subpopulations K and shows that for fixed K, FST has a peculiar constraint as a function of M. Expand
Impact of human population history on distributions of individual-level genetic distance
TLDR
This work considers a range of models of population history and, using coalescent simulation, reveals the potential insights gained from a set of CAPs, the distributions of genetic distances between individuals. Expand
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