Human Gait with Reference to Age, Gender and Impact of Load: A Review

  title={Human Gait with Reference to Age, Gender and Impact of Load: A Review},
  author={Arundhati Guha Thakurta and Rauf Iqbal and H. V. Bhasin and Amitabha De and Shreya Maulik},
  journal={Accident Analysis \& Prevention},
This review paper summarizes the available literature regarding the analysis of human gait of with reference to age and its effect on the performance. The ability to walk upright on two legs (bipedalism) is the root of what it means to be human and each person displays personal peculiarities in their walking pattern. According to the studies, muscle activity changes with the deviation of gait pattern in different condition and even for different individuals. It has been found that a vivid… 
An exploratory investigation of changes in gait parameters with age in elderly Japanese women
It is indicated that basic gait parameters, such as the gait cycle, peak joint angle timing, and angular velocity parameters, significantly differ between elderly and very elderly women.
Relevance of sex, age and gait kinematics when predicting fall-risk and mortality in older adults.
Gait speed has been largely used as the single feature for the prediction fall risk among older adults, but prediction accuracy can be substantially improved, reaching 70% in some cases, if the task of training and testing the model takes into account some other features, namely, sex, age and gait kinematic parameters.
Critical review of the use and scientific basis of forensic gait analysis
It is argued that the scientific basis of forensic gait analysis is limited, however, gait feature databases enable its use in court for supportive evidence with relatively low evidential value.
Critical review of the use and scientific basis of forensic gait analysis
This review summarizes the scientific basis of forensic gait analysis and evaluates its use in the Netherlands, United Kingdom and Denmark, following recent critique on the admission of gait evidence


Three-dimensional human gait pattern - reference data for normal men.
The aim of this research was to establish a kinematic pattern of adult gait for motion analysis system BTS Smart-E used in the research conducted in the Laboratory of Biomechanical Analysis,
Gait pattern classification of healthy elderly men based on biomechanical data.
The walking patterns in elderly subjects were found to be different from those of the young adults, and biomechanical parameters can be used to classify the gait patterns of young and elderly men using cluster analysis rather than age alone.
The kinematics of idiopathic gait disorder. A comparison with healthy young and elderly females.
The patients with IGDE not only walk far slower than a group of healthy age matched individuals but the range of speeds, from self-selected slow to fast, is much reduced and does not overlap that of the healthy elderly.
Biomechanical Analysis of Walking: Effects of Gait Velocity and Arm Swing Amplitude
Human walking has been extensively studied by many investigators and numerous mathematical models of lower limb movements have been developed but few reports have been written about the contribution
Biomechanical walking pattern changes in the fit and healthy elderly.
A separate gait database is needed in order to pinpoint falling disorders of the elderly, as significant differences attributable to age alone are apparent.
Age-related differences in walking stability.
The adoption of a more conservative basic gait pattern by older people with a low risk of falling reduces the magnitude of accelerations experienced by the head and pelvis when walking, which is likely to be a compensatory strategy to maintain balance in the presence of age-related deficits in physiological function.
Age-related changes in upper body adaptation to walking speed in human locomotion.
Findings support the importance of systematic manipulation of walking velocity and three-dimensional upper body kinematics in assessing age-related changes in locomotor stability and adaptability.
Comparison of gait of young women and elderly women.
The elderly women demonstrated significantly smaller values of step length, stride length, ankle range of motion, pelvic obliquity, and velocity when compared with the younger women.
Effects of aging on gait patterns in the healthy elderly
The elderly were weaker in grip strength and had shorter single-leg balance with eyes open than the young adults, and long stance phase duration and slow speed in the elderly could be an adaptive characteristic in response to impaired balance.
A comparison of gait characteristics between Korean and Western people for establishing Korean gait reference data
Abstract It is important to analyze the characteristics of normal gait in clinical and biomechanical aspects. Although gait characteristics can be varied by anthropometric, racial and cultural