Human G Protein–Coupled Receptor Gpr-9-6/Cc Chemokine Receptor 9 Is Selectively Expressed on Intestinal Homing T Lymphocytes, Mucosal Lymphocytes, and Thymocytes and Is Required for Thymus-Expressed Chemokine–Mediated Chemotaxis

@article{Zabel1999HumanGP,
  title={Human G Protein–Coupled Receptor Gpr-9-6/Cc Chemokine Receptor 9 Is Selectively Expressed on Intestinal Homing T Lymphocytes, Mucosal Lymphocytes, and Thymocytes and Is Required for Thymus-Expressed Chemokine–Mediated Chemotaxis},
  author={B. Zabel and W. Agace and James J. Campbell and H. Heath and D. Parent and A. Roberts and E. Ebert and N. Kassam and S. Qin and Maria Zovko and G. Larosa and Li-li Yang and D. Soler and E. Butcher and P. Ponath and C. Parker and D. Andrew},
  journal={The Journal of Experimental Medicine},
  year={1999},
  volume={190},
  pages={1241 - 1256}
}
TECK (thymus-expressed chemokine), a recently described CC chemokine expressed in thymus and small intestine, was found to mediate chemotaxis of human G protein–coupled receptor GPR-9-6/L1.2 transfectants. This activity was blocked by anti–GPR-9-6 monoclonal antibody (mAb) 3C3. GPR-9-6 is expressed on a subset of memory α4β7high intestinal trafficking CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes. In addition, all intestinal lamina propria and intraepithelial lymphocytes express GPR-9-6. In contrast, GPR-9-6 is not… Expand
Lymphocyte Cc Chemokine Receptor 9 and Epithelial Thymus-Expressed Chemokine (Teck) Expression Distinguish the Small Intestinal Immune Compartment
TLDR
Results imply a restricted role for lymphocyte CCR9 and its ligand TECK in the small intestine, and provide the first evidence for distinctive mechanisms of lymphocyte recruitment that may permit functional specialization of immune responses in different segments of the gastrointestinal tract. Expand
CC Chemokine Receptor 9 Expression Defines a Subset of Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes with Mucosal T Cell Phenotype and Th1 or T-Regulatory 1 Cytokine Profile 1
TLDR
Memory subset of circulating CCR9+CD4+ T cells has characteristics of mucosal T lymphocytes and contains cells with either Th1 or T-regulatory 1 cytokine profiles, which could provide important insight into small intestinal immune-mediated diseases and oral tolerance in humans. Expand
The Role of Thymus-Expressed Chemokine and Its Receptor CCR9 on Lymphocytes in the Regional Specialization of the Mucosal Immune System1
TLDR
It is suggested that the selective expression of TECK in the small bowel underlie the homing of CCR9+ intestinal memory T cells to theSmall bowel rather than to the colon, which implies a segregation of small intestinal from colonic immune responses. Expand
Characterization of CCR9 expression and thymus-expressed chemokine responsiveness of the murine thymus, spleen and mesenteric lymph node.
TLDR
CCR9 may act in concert with CCR3 for in terms of TECK responsiveness, and its cytoplasmic location may allow precise regulation of leukocyte responsiveness to TECK. Expand
CD46-Induced Immunomodulatory CD4+ T Cells Express the Adhesion Molecule and Chemokine Receptor Pattern of Intestinal T Cells1
TLDR
Data suggest that CD46-induced Tregs might play a role in intestinal immune homeostasis where they could dampen unwanted effector T cell responses through local IL-10/granzyme B production. Expand
Mice lacking the CCR9 CC-chemokine receptor show a mild impairment of early T- and B-cell development and a reduction in T-cell receptor γδ+ gut intraepithelial lymphocytes
TLDR
In thymocytes, CCR9 is the only physiologic receptor for TECK/CCL25, and that it is dispensable for proper T-cell development, which suggests that in the small intestine of C CR9-deficient mice, the intraepithelial T- cell–to–epIThelial cell ratio is decreased. Expand
Expression of CCR9 beta-chemokine receptor is modulated in thymocyte differentiation and is selectively maintained in CD8(+) T cells from secondary lymphoid organs.
TLDR
Results suggest that CCR9 has a role in thymocyte development throughout murine life, with clear differences between the CD4(+) and CD8(+) lineages. Expand
Mice lacking the CCR9 CC-chemokine receptor show a mild impairment of early T- and B-cell development and a reduction in T-cell receptor gammadelta(+) gut intraepithelial lymphocytes.
TLDR
In thymocytes, CCR9 is the only physiologic receptor for TECK/CCL25, and that it is dispensable for proper T-cell development, which suggests that in the small intestine of C CR9-deficient mice, the intraepithelial T- cell-to-epIThelial cell ratio is decreased. Expand
Mammalian and Viral IL-10 Enhance C-C Chemokine Receptor 5 but Down-Regulate C-C Chemokine Receptor 7 Expression by Myeloid Dendritic Cells: Impact on Chemotactic Responses and In Vivo Homing Ability1
TLDR
It is suggested that in addition to their capacity to subvert DC maturation/function and confer tolerogenic potential on these cells, mIL-10 and v IL-10 regulate DC migratory responses via modulation of CCR expression. Expand
CXCR3 and αEβ7 integrin identify a subset of CD8+ mature thymocytes that share phenotypic and functional properties with CD8+ gut intraepithelial lymphocytes
TLDR
The results of this study demonstrate the existence of a previously unrecognised subset of TCRαβ+CD8 αβ+ SP CXCR3+CD103+ thymocytes which share phenotypic and functional features with CD8+ IELs, thus suggesting the possibility of their direct colonisation of the gut mucosa. Expand
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References

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Cutting edge: identification of the orphan chemokine receptor GPR-9-6 as CCR9, the receptor for the chemokine TECK.
TLDR
RT-PCR analysis of murine GPR-9-6 expression on murine FACS-sorted thymocyte subpopulations showed that this gene is expressed in both immature and mature T cells, and determined the cDNA sequence of human and murine TECK and cloned the corresponding murine cDNA. Expand
CC-Chemokine Receptor 6 Is Expressed on Diverse Memory Subsets of T Cells and Determines Responsiveness to Macrophage Inflammatory Protein 3α
TLDR
The data are the first to analyze surface expression of CCR6, demonstrating receptor expression on differentiated, resting memory T cells, indicating differences in receptor signaling on T cells and B cells and suggesting that CCR 6 and MIP-3α may play a role in the physiology of resting memoryT cells and in the interactions of memory T Cells, B cells, and dendritic cells. Expand
6-C-kine (SLC), a Lymphocyte Adhesion-triggering Chemokine Expressed by High Endothelium, Is an Agonist for the MIP-3β Receptor CCR7
TLDR
The findings suggest that the majority of circulating lymphocytes respond to 6CK/SLC and MIP-3β in large part through their common receptor CCR7 and that these molecules may be important mediators of physiological lymphocyte recirculation in vivo. Expand
STCP-1 (MDC) CC chemokine acts specifically on chronically activated Th2 lymphocytes and is produced by monocytes on stimulation with Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13.
TLDR
ST CP-1 stimulated T cell chemoattractant protein-1 (STCP-1) (macrophage-derived chemokine) was found to act specifically on a subset of memory CD4 lymphocytes that displayed a Th2 cytokine profile. Expand
Flexible Programs of Chemokine Receptor Expression on Human Polarized T Helper 1 and 2 Lymphocytes
TLDR
It is demonstrated that chemokine receptors are markers of naive and polarized T cell subsets and suggested that flexible programs of chemokin receptor gene expression may control tissue-specific migration of effector T cells. Expand
The chemokine receptor CCR4 in vascular recognition by cutaneous but not intestinal memory T cells
TLDR
The results suggest that CCR4 and TARC are important in the recognition of skin vasculature by circulating T cells and in directing lymphocytes that are involved in systemic as opposed to intestinal immunity to their target tissues. Expand
Regulation of T Lymphocyte Trafficking into Lymph Nodes During an Immune Response by the Chemokines Macrophage Inflammatory Protein (MIP)-1α and MIP-1β
By virtue of their target cell specificity, chemokines have the potential to selectively recruit leukocyte subpopulations into sites of inflammation. Their role in regulation of T lymphocyte trafficExpand
The chemokine receptors CXCR3 and CCR5 mark subsets of T cells associated with certain inflammatory reactions.
TLDR
Results demonstrate that the chemokine receptor CXCR3 and CCR5 are markers for T cells associated with certain inflammatory reactions, particularly TH-1 type reactions, and appear to identify subsets of T cells in blood with a predilection for homing to these sites. Expand
Expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein‐1 and interleukin‐8 receptors on subsets of T cells: correlation with transendothelial chemotactic potential
TLDR
There is a clear distinction between the IL‐8‐ and MCP‐1‐responsive T cell populations and that chemokine receptor expression on T cells may be regulated with respect to lineage as well as cellular activation. Expand
The cutaneous lymphocyte antigen is a skin lymphocyte homing receptor for the vascular lectin endothelial cell-leukocyte adhesion molecule 1
TLDR
Evidence is presented that CLA itself is the (or a) lymphocyte homing receptor for ELAM-1, an interaction that may be involved in targeting of CLA+ T cells to cutaneous sites of chronic inflammation. Expand
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