Human Coronavirus Infections

  title={Human Coronavirus Infections},
  author={Steven H. Myint},
The first report of a human coronavirus was in 1965 when Tyrrell and Bynoe (1965) isolated a virus from the nasal washings of a male child. The child had typical symptoms and signs of a common cold and the washing was found to be able to induce common colds in volunteers challenged intranasally. The virus, termed B814 (after the number of the nasal washing), could be cultivated in human embryo tracheal organ tissue but not in cell lines used at that time for growing other known etiologic agents… 

Coronaviruses and Toroviruses

Molecular analysis has shown that these two viruses differ extensively from each other; they are distinct species of coronavirus, not simply variants of each other.


The following review deals with the history of Coronavirus briefly, the outbreak of SARS CoV in 2002-03, MERS – CoV (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome) ten years later and finally about COVID-19 and it’s mode of transmission, diagnosis and treatment.

Human Challenge Studies with Coronaviruses Old and New.

The major questions about protection and pathogenesis in HCoV infection that human infection challenge studies have attempted to answer historically are summarised, as well as the knowledge gaps that aim to be addressed with contemporary models.

Neuroinvasive and Neurotropic Human Respiratory Coronaviruses: Potential Neurovirulent Agents in Humans

It has been suggested that these recognized human respiratory pathogens could be associated with the triggering or the exacerbation of neurological diseases for which the etiology remains unknown or poorly understood.

Pathogenesis of Human Coronaviruses Other than Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

This chapter deals with recent advances in research and development on inhibitors that act at various steps of the virus replication cycle, from receptor binding to release of progeny infectious particles.

Survival of human coronaviruses 229E and OC43 in suspension and after drying onsurfaces: a possible source ofhospital-acquired infections

It is suggested that surfaces and suspensions can be considered as possible sources of contamination that may lead to hospital-acquired infections with HCoV and should be appropriately disinfected.

COVID-19: An Emerging Rapidly Evolving Situation

The novel Coronaviruses, COVID-19 posses a unique morphology and mode of replication of the virus is very unique as it replicate through the generation of nested set of viral mRNA.

Coronaviridae: a review of coronaviruses and toroviruses

  • D. Cavanagh
  • Biology, Medicine
    Coronaviruses with Special Emphasis on First Insights Concerning SARS
  • 2005
The advent of SARS-CoV served as a reminder of an important aspect that the authors already knew about coronaviruses, namely that their host range is greater than was often supposed.



Effects of a "new" human respiratory virus in volunteers.

The prototype strain of Hamre and Procknow's virus, 229-E, is given to volunteers in order to determine whether it causes colds and to study serum neutralizing antibody during infections with viruses of this type.

Isolation of rhinoviruses and coronaviruses from 38 colds in adults

Three specimens gave doubtful results in volunteers, and five others, all collected within a period of six weeks in December and January, apparently contained no infectious agent, although tests in volunteers showed that cold‐producing agents were present in five of them.

Sensitivity of L132 Cells to Some “New” Respiratory Viruses

It has been proposed that the group of virsues with this morphology should be called “coronaviruses”, and those viruses only cultivated in organ culture were detected either by electron, microscopy, or by inoculation into human volunteers, by stopping the ciliary activity of the organ culture epithelium.

The behaviour of recent isolates of human respiratory coronavirus in vitro and in volunteers: Evidence of heterogeneity among 229E‐related strains

  • S. Reed
  • Biology, Medicine
    Journal of medical virology
  • 1984
Strains of human coronavirus isolated between 1974 and 1976 have been studied in vitro and in volunteers, and those cultivable in tissue culture produced significantly more coryza and less sore throat than strains growing only in organ culture (OC).


This communication outlines, first, recent epidemiologic studies of coronavirus infection and, second, attempts to adapt some of the more fastidious strains to growth in tissue culture monolayers.

Antigenic relationships among the coronaviruses of man and between human and animal coronaviruses.

It was shown that strain IBV-42 was unrelated to the human and murine viruses and that strain 229E bore little, if any, relation to the murine or other human strains tested.

Growth in suckling-mouse brain of "IBV-like" viruses from patients with upper respiratory tract disease.

Six strains of a medium-sized virus bearing a close morphologic resemblance to avian infectious bronchitis virus were recovered in this laboratory from patients with colds, and newborn mice were inoculated with the "IBV-like" virus strains, finding that mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), another RNA-containing ether-labile virus, was morphologically identical to members of the " IBV- like" virus group in negatively stained preparations.

Coronavirus infections of man associated with diseases other than the common cold

It was concluded that in 28 cases with an increase of OC43 antibody litres, and in two with titre decrease, a disease could be associated with an acute coronavirus infection.


Seroconversions to coronavirus strain OC 43 were associated with as much as 19% of the respiratory diseases in a single season and the HI test was more sensitive for serodiagnosis than the complement-fixaticn test.

Cultivation of "difficult" viruses from patients with common colds.

This paper describes the cultivation of still more viruses by further experiments in which a modified tech nique of organ culture was used.