Human Color Vision

@inproceedings{Kremers2016HumanCV,
  title={Human Color Vision},
  author={Jan Kremers and Rigmor C. Baraas and N. Justin Marshall},
  booktitle={Springer Series in Vision Research},
  year={2016}
}
Primates are unique among mammals in possessing trichromacy. In Old World primates, it is based on three cone classes in the retina, each expressing a different class of visual pigment. These pigment classes are each orthologues of pigments present throughout the vertebrate kingdom, the short wavelength-sensitive (SWS1, SWS2, LWS and MWS) pigment and two representatives of the long wavelength-sensitive (LWS) pigment, L cone opsin and M cone opsin. The latter two pigments arose from a… 
Colorimetry and Dichromatic Vision
TLDR
Dichromat’s color appearance models have been developed to simulate the colors supposedly seen by dichromats, and there exist color simulation tools that implement some of those models.
Melanopsin sensitivity in the human visual system
TLDR
This work addresses the question of human melanopsin sensitivity and function in vivo using a spectrally tunable light source and the method of silent substitution, allowing for the selective stimulation of melanopigment in the human retina, in combination of pupillometry, psychophysics, and BOLD functional neuroimaging (fMRI).
Color discrimination at threshold using asymmetric color matching and method of adjustment discrimination to test a six mechanism theory of color vision
TLDR
The six mechanism model does an excellent job of accounting for the psychophysical data and helps resolve a current dispute in color vision research on post-receptoral processing.
Color and the Cone Mosaic.
  • D. Brainard
  • Psychology
    Annual review of vision science
  • 2015
TLDR
The first stages of spatiochromatic vision are considered, showing how spatial and chromatic information become intertwined by the optics of the eye and because of the structure of the retinal cone mosaic, and the consequent implications for perception.
The Discovery of Spectral Opponency in Visual Systems and its Impact on Understanding the Neurobiology of Color Vision
  • G. H. Jacobs
  • Biology, Psychology
    Journal of the history of the neurosciences
  • 2014
TLDR
Single-unit electrophysiology emerged as a tool allowing a direct examination of links between spectral stimulation of the eye and responses of individual cells in visual systems, revealing that the visual systems of animals known to have color vision contain cells that respond in a spectrally-opponent manner.
Human Visual Cortex Responses to Rapid Cone and Melanopsin-Directed Flicker
TLDR
It is found that melanopsin signals do not produce a measurable response in visual cortex at temporal frequencies between 0.5 and 64 Hz at daytime light levels, and that cortical responses to cone signals vary systematically across visual areas.
An Integrative Framework for the Appraisal of Coloration in Nature
TLDR
The key perceptual principles, namely, retinal photoreception, sensory channels, opponent processing, color constancy, and receptor noise, are discussed, to inform an analytical framework driven by the research question in relation to identifiable viewers and visual tasks of interest.
The Verriest Lecture: Visual properties of metameric blacks beyond cone vision.
  • F. Viénot, H. Brettel
  • Biology
    Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, image science, and vision
  • 2014
TLDR
Within a multireceptor and multiprimary scheme, how far the choice of illumination can isolate a photoreceptor response is investigated and extension of Cohen's procedure to rod and cone metamers is proposed.
A neural field model for color perception unifying assimilation and contrast
TLDR
A neural field model of color perception with spatial context for the visual area V1 of the cortex is proposed, which reconciles two opposing perceptual phenomena, known as simultaneous contrast and chromatic assimilation.
The Variation of Human Color Vision in Bogor
TLDR
The result showed that the frequency of human dichromacy in Bogor was 1.86%, which was similiar or higher than another Asian and Eastern people dichromate but lower than European, American, and other Western people.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 1,384 REFERENCES
Mutations in S-cone pigment genes and the absence of colour vision in two species of nocturnal primate
TLDR
Examination of the nucleotide sequences of the S-cone pigment genes reveals that each species has deleterious mutational changes: in comparison to the sequence for the corresponding region of the human gene, exon 4 of the bushbaby S- cone pigment gene has a two nucleotide deletion and a single nucleotide insertion that produces a frame shift and results in the introduction of a stop codon.
Losses of functional opsin genes, short-wavelength cone photopigments, and color vision—A significant trend in the evolution of mammalian vision
TLDR
Nocturnality appears to set the stage for loss of functional SWS1 opsin genes in mammals, but it cannot be the sole circumstance.
Evolution and spectral tuning of visual pigments in birds and mammals
TLDR
The extent of diversity in mammals and birds in terms of types and spectral characteristics of visual pigments is discussed in detail in this review, alongside an in-depth consideration of the molecular changes involved.
The evolution of trichromatic color vision by opsin gene duplication in New World and Old World primates.
TLDR
The upstream region of this gene in a New World monkey, the marmoset, is sequenced to demonstrate the presence of an LCR in an equivalent position to that in Old World primates, and extensive homology from the coding region to the LCR with the upstream sequence of the human LW gene is shown.
The retinal mosaics of opsin expression in invertebrates and vertebrates
TLDR
Despite distinct evolutionary origins, as well as major differences in morphology and phototransduction machineries, there are significant similarities in the stepwise cell‐fate decisions that lead to terminally differentiated photoreceptors that express a particular opsin.
Avian Visual Pigments: Characteristics, Spectral Tuning, and Evolution
TLDR
In birds, UVS visual pigments have re‐evolved from an ancestral avian VS pigment by using a novel molecular mechanism not seen in other vertebrate classes, which has occurred independently in four of the 14 avian orders examined to date.
Cone pigment gene expression in individual photoreceptors and the chromatic topography of the retina.
TLDR
There is a close correspondence between the cone ratio determined from counting single cells and the L:M pigment mRNA ratio estimated from homogenized pieces of retina, and results show that the different pigment genes in one array are often expressed at very different levels, giving rise to unequal numbers of L and M cones.
Functional diversity in the color vision of cichlid fishes
TLDR
It is argued that females and males sample their visual environment differently, providing a neural basis for sexually dimorphic visual behaviour, and offers the first comprehensive evidence for pentachromatic color vision in vertebrates, which offers the potential for extraordinary spectral discrimination capabilities.
S cones: Evolution, retinal distribution, development, and spectral sensitivity
TLDR
Evidence from the study of agnathans and teleost fishes indicates that the ancestral vertebrate SWS1 pigment was ultraviolet (UV) sensitive with a peak around 360 nm, but this has shifted into the violet region of the spectrum on many separate occasions during vertebrate evolution.
Polymorphic Color Vision in Primates: Evolutionary Considerations
TLDR
New World monkeys can serve as an excellent model to understand and evaluate the adaptive significance of primate trichromacy in a behavioral context and are introduced to introduce the genetic and behavioral study of vision–behavior interrelationships in free-ranging sympatric capuchin and spider monkey populations in Costa Rica.
...
...