Human Capital Development Before Age Five

  title={Human Capital Development Before Age Five},
  author={Douglas Almond and Janet Currie},
  journal={Labor: Demographics \& Economics of the Family eJournal},
  • D. Almond, J. Currie
  • Published 1 March 2010
  • Political Science, Psychology
  • Labor: Demographics & Economics of the Family eJournal
This chapter seeks to set out what economists have learned about the effects of early childhood influences on later life outcomes, and about ameliorating the effects of negative influences. We begin with a brief overview of the theory which illustrates that evidence of a causal relationship between a shock in early childhood and a future outcome says little about whether the relationship in question is biological or immutable. We then survey recent work which shows that events before five years… Expand
Early life determinants of long-run outcomes
Almond and Currie’s 2011 Handbook of Labor Economics chapter (Almond and Currie, 2011) gives an excellent synthesis of the literature on early childhood influences on later life outcomes, and of theExpand
14.662 S15 Labor Economics II Lecture 18
Almond and Currie’s 2011 Handbook of Labor Economics chapter (Almond and Currie, 2011) gives an excellent synthesis of the literature on early childhood influences on later life outcomes, and of theExpand
Childhood Circumstances and Adult Outcomes: Act Ii
That prenatal events can have life-long consequences is now well established. Nevertheless, research on the fetal origins hypothesis is flourishing and has expanded to include the early childhoodExpand
Children's experiences during early childhood are critical for their cognitive and socio-emotional development, two key dimensions of human capital. However, children from low income backgroundsExpand
Integrating Early-life Shocks and Human Capital Investments on Children´s Education
This study investigates how early-life conditions interact with subsequent human capital investments to influence future educational outcomes. To provide causal evidence, we exploit two sources ofExpand
No small matter : the impact of poverty, shocks, and human capital investments in early childhood development
The relative lack of attention to early childhood development in many developing countries remains a puzzle, and an opportunity. There is increasing evidence that investments in the nutritional,Expand
Three Essays on the Economics of Education and Early Childhood
In these essays, I study the long-term effects of education policies and birth order on educational and labor market outcomes. In my first chapter I study the long-term effects of one of the firstExpand
On the importance of families and public policies for child development outcomes
This thesis investigates how public interventions in developing countries can promote human capital accumulation of children at different stages of life (pre-school, compulsory and post-compulsoryExpand
Essays on childhood conditions and adult economic and health outcomes
This dissertation includes four essays on how childhood interventions affected adult labor market and health disparities by examining the internment of Japanese Americans during World War II as a natural experiment and whether the negative effects of low birth weight are mitigated by socioeconomic status. Expand
Policy Retrospectives
Mounting evidence across different disciplines suggests that early-life conditions can have consequences on individual outcomes throughout the life cycle. Relative to other developed countries, theExpand


A Benefit Cost Analysis of the Abecedarian Early Childhood Intervention.
A commonly proposed approach to improving the educational success of children in poverty is the provision of early childhood education programs. These interventions, most notably Head Start,Expand
The Influence of Early-Life Events on Human Capital, Health Status, and Labor Market Outcomes Over the Life Course
The evidence is consistent with a negative reinforcing intergenerational transmission of disadvantage within the family; parental economic status influences birth outcomes, birth outcomes have long reaching effects on health and economic status in adulthood, which in turn leads to poor birth outcomes for one’s own children. Expand
The Effect of Maternal Depression and Substance Abuse on Child Human Capital Development
Recent models of human capital formation represent a synthesis of the human capital approach and a life cycle view of human development that is grounded in neuroscience (Heckman 2007). This model ofExpand
Human Capital Policy
This paper considers alternative policies for promoting skill formation that are targeted to different stages of the life cycle. We demonstrate the importance of both cognitive and noncognitiveExpand
The Effect of Expansions in Maternity Leave Coverage on Children's Long-Term Outcomes
This paper evaluates the impact of three major expansions in leave coverage in Germany on the long-run education and labor market outcomes of children. Evaluation of three policy reforms as opposedExpand
Children's welfare exposure and subsequent development
We examine the extent to which children are exposed to the welfare system through their mother's receipt of benefits and its impact on several developmental outcomes. Using data from the matchedExpand
Does Head Start Make a Difference?
A comparison of non-parametric estimates of program effects with parametric models that control for selection suggests that studies that ignore selection can be substantially misleading; it also suggests that the impact of selection differs considerably across racial and ethnic groups. Expand
The Impact of Family Income on Child Achievement: Evidence from the Earned Income Tax Credit
Past estimates of the effect of family income on child development have often been plagued by endogeneity and measurement error. In this paper, we use an instrumental variables strategy to estimateExpand
The more the merrier? The effect of family size and birth order on children's education
There is an extensive theoretical literature that postulates a trade-off between child quantity and quality within a family. However, there is little causal evidence that speaks to this theory. UsingExpand
Causes and consequences of early-life health
The hypothesis that childhood health influences health and economic status throughout adulthood is supported, using height as a marker of childhood health and estimates of the associations between height and a range of outcomes indicate that, on average, taller individuals attain higher levels of education. Expand