Human Breast Development

  title={Human Breast Development},
  author={Beatrice A. Howard and Barry Gusterson},
  journal={Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia},
This review presents an atlas of the histology of the normal physiological states of the human breast including prenatal, prepubertal, and pubertal development, adult resting gland, pregnancy, lactation, and postinvolution. The aim is to produce a pictorial overview of the main stages in development and the common findings in the adult that are considered to be within the range of normality. Unlike inbred strains of animals, in humans it is clear that the chronology of ductal and lobular… 

Physiology and Developmental Stages of the Breast

Understanding of breast development allows better understanding of pathophysiological processes driving diseases of the breast, which allows better diagnosis and treatment for their patients and for clinicians, constant research and education is necessary.

Development and Pathology of the Equine Mammary Gland

  • K. Hughes
  • Biology, Medicine
    Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
  • 2020
This review examines the prenatal development of the equine mammary gland and the striking degree to which the tissue undergoes postnatal development associated with the reproductive cycle.

Anatomy of the human mammary gland: Current status of knowledge

The current status of knowledge of the normal macro‐ and micro‐anatomy of the human mammary gland and the distinct changes it undergoes during the key developmental stages that characterize it are presented, from embryonic life through to post‐menopausal age.

Development of the human breast.

The mammary gland is an epidermal appendage, derived from the apocrine glands, and the human breast consists of the parenchyma and stroma, originating from ectodermal and mesodermal elements, respectively.

The Mammary Glands of Macaques

The normal biology and physiology of the mammary gland in macaques is described, including the typical histologic appearance across the life span (development, reproductive maturity, lactation, and senescence), as well as systemic and local hormonal regulators of mammary glands proliferation, differentiation, and function.

The evolution of perennially enlarged breasts in women: a critical review and a novel hypothesis

It is proposed that breasts appeared as early as Homo ergaster, originally as a by‐product of other coincident evolutionary processes of adaptive significance, including an increase in subcutaneous fat tissue in response to the demands of thermoregulatory and energy storage, and of the ontogenetic development of the evolving brain.

Anatomy of female puberty: The clinical relevance of developmental changes in the reproductive system

The ability to recognize normal pubertal anatomy and distinguish between estrogen and androgen effects is important in the ability to diagnose and treat disorders of sex development, precocious puberty, pubertAL delay, and menstrual irregularities in children and adolescents.

Embryonic Mammary Gland Development; a Domain of Fundamental Research with High Relevance for Breast Cancer Research

This issue underrepresents insights in prenatal mammary development in monotremes, marsupials, and placentals other than mice and rabbit, including human.

The Mammary Gland: An Overview

Overview of Mammary Gland Development: A Comparison of Mouse and Human.

The parallels and contrasts in mouse mammary gland and human breast morphogenesis from an early embryonic phase through to puberty, adulthood, pregnancy, parturition, and lactation, and finally the regressive stage of involution are described.



Growth and development of the human infant breast.

This paper describes the most extensive anatomical and histological study of the human infant breast to date and lays the foundation for a detailed study ofThe epithelial and stromal changes that take place during human breast development.

The development of epithelial phenotypes in the human fetal and infant breast

A detailed analysis of the epithelial phenotypes in the human fetal and infant breast is described and a model system has been proposed for mammary epithelial differentiation.

Breast Development in Puberty

  • J. Drife
  • Medicine
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • 1986
The structural and functional changes that occur at puberty are described, and what is known about the endocrine control of these changes in the human is summarized.

Peripubertal human breast development

The macroscopic architecture of the mammary epithelial tree was identified and correlated with the histological appearance of material excised from defined regions of the breast preparations, and less‐well‐defined multilayered regions were observed in some areas.

Think globally, act locally: the making of a mouse mammary gland.

On a phylogenetic scale of organ development the mammary gland is a recent acquisition. It was introduced 200 million years ago with the appearance of mammals to provide nourishment to the newborn in

In vitro analysis of the hormonal basis for the sexual dimorphism in the embryonic development of the mouse mammary gland.

  • K. Kratochwil
  • Biology
    Journal of embryology and experimental morphology
  • 1971
The sexual dimorphism in the embryonic development of mouse mammary glands is caused by their suppression in males and not by their stimulation in female embryos.

Differentiation antigens in stromal and epithelial cells of the breast.

There is a large morphological spectrum of benign and malignant diseases that are specific to the human breast. The presence of stromal tumors (phyllodes) that are not found anywhere else in the body

Ultrastructure of human fetal mammary gland

The close connections and concomitant differentiation of the mammary bud epithelium and mesenchyme during the early embryogenesis in this study suggest that epithelio‐mesenchymal interaction plays an important role in the differentiation of human mammary gland.

The Basic Pathology of Human Breast Cancer

The atlas covers benign proliferative lesions, atypical lesions, variants of in situ cancer, the main types of invasive cancers, spindle cell lesions, and examples of vascular and lymphatic spread.

Regulation of Mammary Gland Development by Tissue Interaction

Evidence that mammary epithelialcells from late embryonic stages are already capable of synthesizing milk proteins when subjected to appropriatehormonal stimulation is provided.