Human African trypanosomiasis in endemic populations and travellers

  title={Human African trypanosomiasis in endemic populations and travellers},
  author={Johannes A. Blum and Andreas Neumayr and C. F. Hatz},
  journal={European Journal of Clinical Microbiology \& Infectious Diseases},
  • J. Blum, A. Neumayr, C. Hatz
  • Published 1 June 2012
  • Medicine
  • European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) or sleeping sickness is caused by the protozoan parasites Trypanosoma brucei (T.b.) gambiense (West African form) and T.b. rhodesiense (East African form) that are transmitted by the bite of the tsetse fly, Glossina spp.. Whereas most patients in endemic populations are infected with T.b. gambiense, most tourists are infected with T.b. rhodesiense. In endemic populations, T.b. gambiense HAT is characterized by chronic and intermittent fever, headache… 
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The recent decline in the number of reported new HAT cases should not foster further neglect of this highly neglected nervous system infection, and stage biomarkers and safer therapy are urgently needed.
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  • 2012
In this issue, two cases are described of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) due to Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. They occurred recently in European tourists returning from Masai Mara area, Kenya,
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These pathogenic trypanosomatids alternate between invertebrate and vertebrate hosts throughout their lifecycles, and different developmental stages can live inside the host cells and circulate in the bloodstream or in the insect gut.
Human African trypanosomiasis in non-endemic countries.
The clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of the two forms of HAT are outlined, Rhodesiense HAT is an acute illness that presents in tourists who have recently visited game parks in Eastern or Southern Africa, whereas GambienseHAT has a more chronic clinical course.
Human African trypanosomiasis.
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    Infectious disease clinics of North America
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Leishmania and Trypanosoma
Clinicians may have to use many different diagnostic methods to detect the infection due to the low number of parasites in specimens, and some infections may self-cure, while others will need to be treated depending on the number of lesions and whether the leishmaniasis is mucocutaneous or visceral.


Human African trypanosomiasis–neurological aspects
There is a pressing need for a non–toxic oral drug for both early and late stage disease that would obviate many of the problems of staging, and various possible strategies to achieve this goal are currently underway.
Novel biomarkers for late-stage human African trypanosomiasis--the search goes on.
  • P. Kennedy
  • Biology
    The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene
  • 2010
Melarsoprol, unlike early-stage drugs such as suramin and pentamidine, crosses the blood–brain barrier and is the most commonly used drug for both types of CNS HAT, but it is associated with an overall fatality rate of 5% because of a severe reactive encephalopathy.
African Trypanosomiasis In A British Soldier
A British soldier who acquired trypanosomiasis in Malawi presented with classical early signs of sleeping sickness and was aeromedically evacuated to Johannesburg, where Stage One Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense infection was confirmed.
Focus–Specific Clinical Profiles in Human African Trypanosomiasis Caused by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense
A retrospective cohort study providing detailed clinical profiles of 275 HAT patients recruited in two northern foci (Uganda) and one southern focus (Malawi) in East Africa establishes focus-specific HAT clinical phenotypes showing dramatic variations in disease severity and rate of stage progression both between northern and southern East African foci and between Ugandan foci.
Options for Field Diagnosis of Human African Trypanosomiasis
There is an urgent need for better tools for the field diagnosis of this neglected disease, and improved access to diagnosis and treatment for the population at risk remains the greatest challenge for the coming years.
Sleeping Sickness in Travelers - Do They Really Sleep?
The objective of this analysis is to describe the clinical presentation of HAT in Caucasian travelers using the terms “Human African Trypanosomiasis”, “travelers” and “expatriates”; all European languages except Slavic ones were included.
Clinical Presentation of T.b. rhodesiense Sleeping Sickness in Second Stage Patients from Tanzania and Uganda
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This case report, along with a review of previously reported cases of imported African trypanosomiasis, illustrates the importance of clinical consideration of this rare, but often misdiagnosed, tropical illness in febrile patients returning from Africa.
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