Human African trypanosomiasis in endemic populations and travellers

  title={Human African trypanosomiasis in endemic populations and travellers},
  author={Johannes A. Blum and Andreas Neumayr and C. F. Hatz},
  journal={European Journal of Clinical Microbiology \& Infectious Diseases},
  • J. Blum, A. Neumayr, C. Hatz
  • Published 1 June 2012
  • Medicine
  • European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) or sleeping sickness is caused by the protozoan parasites Trypanosoma brucei (T.b.) gambiense (West African form) and T.b. rhodesiense (East African form) that are transmitted by the bite of the tsetse fly, Glossina spp.. Whereas most patients in endemic populations are infected with T.b. gambiense, most tourists are infected with T.b. rhodesiense. In endemic populations, T.b. gambiense HAT is characterized by chronic and intermittent fever, headache… 
Human African trypanosomiasis in travellers to Kenya.
  • F. GobbiZ. Bisoffi
  • Medicine
    Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin
  • 2012
In this issue, two cases are described of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) due to Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. They occurred recently in European tourists returning from Masai Mara area, Kenya,
Biology of human pathogenic trypanosomatids: epidemiology, lifecycle and ultrastructure.
These pathogenic trypanosomatids alternate between invertebrate and vertebrate hosts throughout their lifecycles, and different developmental stages can live inside the host cells and circulate in the bloodstream or in the insect gut.
Human African trypanosomiasis in non-endemic countries.
The clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of the two forms of HAT are outlined, Rhodesiense HAT is an acute illness that presents in tourists who have recently visited game parks in Eastern or Southern Africa, whereas GambienseHAT has a more chronic clinical course.
Leishmania and Trypanosoma
Clinicians may have to use many different diagnostic methods to detect the infection due to the low number of parasites in specimens, and some infections may self-cure, while others will need to be treated depending on the number of lesions and whether the leishmaniasis is mucocutaneous or visceral.
Dermal trypanosomes in suspected and confirmed cases of gambiense Human African Trypanosomiasis
The results highlight the skin as a potential reservoir for trypanosomes, with implications for the understanding of this disease9s epidemiology in the context of its planned elimination and highlighting theskin as a novel target for gHAT diagnostics.
African Trypanosomiasis as Paradigm for Involvement of the Mononuclear Phagocyte System in Pathogenicity During Parasite Infection
The parasite–host interactions with a focus on the role played by cells of the MPS and parasite-derived components triggering immune responses during the different stages/phases of experimental trypanosome infections and the contribution of cells ofThe MPS to immunopathogenicity development with focus on liver injury and anemia are discussed.


Human African trypanosomiasis–neurological aspects
There is a pressing need for a non–toxic oral drug for both early and late stage disease that would obviate many of the problems of staging, and various possible strategies to achieve this goal are currently underway.
Novel biomarkers for late-stage human African trypanosomiasis--the search goes on.
  • P. Kennedy
  • Biology
    The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene
  • 2010
Melarsoprol, unlike early-stage drugs such as suramin and pentamidine, crosses the blood–brain barrier and is the most commonly used drug for both types of CNS HAT, but it is associated with an overall fatality rate of 5% because of a severe reactive encephalopathy.
African Trypanosomiasis In A British Soldier
A British soldier who acquired trypanosomiasis in Malawi presented with classical early signs of sleeping sickness and was aeromedically evacuated to Johannesburg, where Stage One Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense infection was confirmed.
Options for Field Diagnosis of Human African Trypanosomiasis
There is an urgent need for better tools for the field diagnosis of this neglected disease, and improved access to diagnosis and treatment for the population at risk remains the greatest challenge for the coming years.
Sleeping Sickness in Travelers - Do They Really Sleep?
The objective of this analysis is to describe the clinical presentation of HAT in Caucasian travelers using the terms “Human African Trypanosomiasis”, “travelers” and “expatriates”; all European languages except Slavic ones were included.
Clinical Presentation of T.b. rhodesiense Sleeping Sickness in Second Stage Patients from Tanzania and Uganda
Background A wide spectrum of disease severity has been described for Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) due to Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (T.b. rhodesiense), ranging from chronic disease
[East African sleeping sickness (Trypanosoma rhodesiense infection) in 2 Swiss travelers to the tropics].
Two Swiss travellers who acquired African sleeping sickness the same day while visiting the Akagera park in Rwanda developed clinical signs of sleeping sickness 8 days after being bitten by a tsetse fly.
Skin features accompanying imported human African trypanosomiasis: hemolymphatic Trypanosoma gambiense infection among two French expatriates with dermatologic manifestations.
Two French expatriates with human African trypanosomiasis due to Trypanosoma brucei gambiense are described who had been diagnosed with delay, at the hemolymphatic stage of the disease and within a presentation comprising characteristic although sparsely reported cutaneous involvement.
[Diagnosis of human African trypanosomiasis in 2001].
Serological tests such as CATT (card agglutination trypanosomiasis test) are useful for initial population screening to identify suspects but are not sufficiently reliable for definitive diagnosis since the variations in sensitivity and specificity have been observed between countries and disease pockets.