Human African trypanosomiasis in endemic populations and travellers

@article{Blum2011HumanAT,
  title={Human African trypanosomiasis in endemic populations and travellers},
  author={Johannes A. Blum and Andreas Neumayr and C. F. Hatz},
  journal={European Journal of Clinical Microbiology \& Infectious Diseases},
  year={2011},
  volume={31},
  pages={905-913}
}
  • J. Blum, A. Neumayr, C. Hatz
  • Published 1 June 2012
  • Medicine
  • European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) or sleeping sickness is caused by the protozoan parasites Trypanosoma brucei (T.b.) gambiense (West African form) and T.b. rhodesiense (East African form) that are transmitted by the bite of the tsetse fly, Glossina spp.. Whereas most patients in endemic populations are infected with T.b. gambiense, most tourists are infected with T.b. rhodesiense. In endemic populations, T.b. gambiense HAT is characterized by chronic and intermittent fever, headache… 
Human African trypanosomiasis in travellers to Kenya.
  • F. GobbiZ. Bisoffi
  • Medicine
    Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin
  • 2012
In this issue, two cases are described of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) due to Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. They occurred recently in European tourists returning from Masai Mara area, Kenya,
Biology of human pathogenic trypanosomatids: epidemiology, lifecycle and ultrastructure.
TLDR
These pathogenic trypanosomatids alternate between invertebrate and vertebrate hosts throughout their lifecycles, and different developmental stages can live inside the host cells and circulate in the bloodstream or in the insect gut.
Human African trypanosomiasis in non-endemic countries.
TLDR
The clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of the two forms of HAT are outlined, Rhodesiense HAT is an acute illness that presents in tourists who have recently visited game parks in Eastern or Southern Africa, whereas GambienseHAT has a more chronic clinical course.
Leishmania and Trypanosoma
TLDR
Clinicians may have to use many different diagnostic methods to detect the infection due to the low number of parasites in specimens, and some infections may self-cure, while others will need to be treated depending on the number of lesions and whether the leishmaniasis is mucocutaneous or visceral.
Dermal trypanosomes in suspected and confirmed cases of gambiense Human African Trypanosomiasis
TLDR
The results highlight the skin as a potential reservoir for trypanosomes, with implications for the understanding of this disease9s epidemiology in the context of its planned elimination and highlighting theskin as a novel target for gHAT diagnostics.
African Trypanosomiasis as Paradigm for Involvement of the Mononuclear Phagocyte System in Pathogenicity During Parasite Infection
TLDR
The parasite–host interactions with a focus on the role played by cells of the MPS and parasite-derived components triggering immune responses during the different stages/phases of experimental trypanosome infections and the contribution of cells ofThe MPS to immunopathogenicity development with focus on liver injury and anemia are discussed.
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