Human 4-1BB regulates CD28 co-stimulation to promote Th1 cell responses.

  title={Human 4-1BB regulates CD28 co-stimulation to promote Th1 cell responses.},
  author={Y J Kim and Sang Hyun Kim and P L Mantel and Byoung S. Kwon},
  journal={European journal of immunology},
  volume={28 3},
Our present study provides evidence that the 4-1BB signal is critical to CD28 co-stimulation in maintaining T cell activation when CD28 has been down-regulated because of repeated stimulation. The 4-1BB signal synergized with CD28 co-stimulation by lowering the threshold of anti-CD28 required to sustain proliferation and IL-2 production. The 4-1BB signal also modulated CD28-mediated cytokine profiles by markedly enhancing Th1 but suppressing Th2-type cytokine production. The 4-1BB signal… CONTINUE READING

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