Hox gene expression during development of the phoronid Phoronopsis harmeri

@article{Gsiorowski2019HoxGE,
  title={Hox gene expression during development of the phoronid Phoronopsis harmeri},
  author={Ludwik Gąsiorowski and Andreas Hejnol},
  journal={EvoDevo},
  year={2019},
  volume={11}
}
Background Phoronida is a small group of marine worm-like suspension feeders, which together with brachiopods and bryozoans form the clade Lophophorata. Although their development is well studied on the morphological level, data regarding gene expression during this process are scarce and restricted to the analysis of relatively few transcription factors. Here we present a description of the expression patterns of Hox genes during the embryonic and larval development of the phoronid Phoronopsis… 

Molecular patterning during the development of Phoronopsis harmeri reveals similarities to rhynchonelliform brachiopods

The description and comparison of gene expression patterns with other studied Bilateria reveals that the timing of axis determination and cell fate distribution of the phoronid shows highest similarity to that of rhynchonelliform brachiopods, which is likely related to their shared protostomic mode of development.

Molecular patterning during the development of Phoronopsis harmeri reveals similarities to rhynchonelliform brachiopods

Comparison of gene expression patterns with other studied Bilateria reveals that the timing of axis determination and cell fate distribution of the phoronid shows highest similarities to rhynchonelliform brachiopods.

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FGF signaling acts on different levels of mesoderm development within Spiralia

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Brachiopod and mollusc biomineralisation is a conserved process that was lost in the phoronid–bryozoan stem lineage

The gene expression patterns recovered indicate that while mineralised shells in brachiopods and molluscs are structurally analogous, their formation builds on a homologous process that involves a conserved complement of orthologous genes, and supports the idea that mineralised skeletons evolved secondarily in some of the bryozoan subclades.

Multiple origins of feeding head larvae by the Early Cambrian

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Molecular patterning during the development of Phoronopsis harmeri reveals similarities to rhynchonelliform brachiopods

The description and comparison of gene expression patterns with other studied Bilateria reveals that the timing of axis determination and cell fate distribution of the phoronid shows highest similarity to that of rhynchonelliform brachiopods, which is likely related to their shared protostomic mode of development.

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Molecular patterning during the development of Phoronopsis harmeri reveals similarities to rhynchonelliform brachiopods

Comparison of gene expression patterns with other studied Bilateria reveals that the timing of axis determination and cell fate distribution of the phoronid shows highest similarities to rhynchonelliform brachiopods.
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