How we got here: Short-scale change in identity labels for trans, cis, and non-binary people in the 2000s

  title={How we got here: Short-scale change in identity labels for trans, cis, and non-binary people in the 2000s},
  author={Lal Zimman and Will Hayworth},
Though understudied in research on language variation and change, the lexicon is a crucial domain for sociopolitical transformations of language. This paper presents a corpus-based sociolinguistic analysis of changes in terms for transgender, cisgender, and non-binary individuals in four online communities on the social media blogging site, – one for trans women, one for trans men, one for non-binary people, and another for transgender people in general – that were popular in… 

"I'm sorry to hear that": finding bias in language models with a holistic descriptor dataset

This work presents a new, more inclusive dataset, H OLISTIC B IAS, which consists of nearly 600 descriptor terms across 13 different demographic axes, and demonstrates that this dataset is highly efficacious for measuring previously unmea-surable biases in token likelihoods and generations from language models, as well as in an offensiveness classi fier.

Perturbation Augmentation for Fairer NLP

It is shown that language models pre-trained on demographically perturbed corpora are more fair, at least, according to the current best metrics for measuring model fairness, and that improved fairness does not come at the expense of accuracy.



Transgender Language, Transgender Moment: Toward a Trans Linguistics

This chapter sketches out trans linguistics as an emerging framework for research on language in populations defined by their deviation from gender norms. Although queer linguistics has always been


!e idea that sex and gender are di"erent is one of the foundational contributions of feminist scholarship (Delphy 1993). It is this distinction—between the biological and the social —that has allowed

The whole woman: Sex and gender differences in variation

ABSTRACT Speaker's sex has emerged as one of the most important social factors in the quantitative study of phonological variation. However, sex does not have a uniform effect on variables or even on

No Effeminates Please: A Corpus-Based Analysis of Masculinity via Personal Adverts in Gay News/Times 1973–2000

Magazines aimed solely at either gay or heterosexual men can often share more similarities than differences. Both tend to include features based on health, fashion, exercise, consumer goods and sex,

Language and Woman's Place

ABSTRACT Our use of language embodies attitudes as well as referential meanings. ‘Woman's language’ has as foundation the attitude that women are marginal to the serious concerns of life, which are

Representing trans: Linguistic, legal and everyday perspectives

  • K. Davison
  • Art
    The Journal of New Zealand Studies
  • 2018
Representing Trans is not only an apt descriptor for the themes explored in this book. It also speaks to the work performed by the book as a whole: it joins a body of new scholarship giving voice to

The reappropriation of tongzhi

  • A. D. Wong
  • Political Science
    Language in Society
  • 2005
A general address term in Communist China, the Chinese word tongzhi ‘comrade’ was appropriated by gay rights activists in Hong Kong to refer to members of sexual minorities. It has positive

'Unnatural acts' Discourses of homosexuality within the House of Lords debates on gay male law reform.

Between 1998 and 2000, the House of Lords in the United Kingdom debated and rejected a Bill to equalise the age of sexual consent for gay men with the age of consent for heterosexual sex at sixteen

The Limits of Awareness

In the course of field work, linguists, just like other anthropologists, spend a great deal of time listening to people talk about what they are doing. The resulting data form a corpus of speech

Analyzing lexical emergence in Modern American English online 1

This article introduces a quantitative method for identifying newly emerging word forms in large time-stamped corpora of natural language and then describes an analysis of lexical emergence in