How we do it: vocal cord Nd-YAG laser surgery, under local anaesthetic, using a flexible trans-nasal laryngo-oesophagoscope
KEYPOINTS: Transnasal flexible laryngo-oesophagoscopy (TNFLO) is a safe and well-tolerated procedure that may be performed in a procedure room in the outpatient or day-case/main theatre setting. It requires a local anaesthetic and no sedation. It may be used to histologically diagnose or exclude pathology from the nose to the gastro-oesophageal junction. It provides a "one stop" diagnosis service, reducing diagnostic delays, the need for endoscopy under general anaesthesia, barium swallows and follow-up outpatient appointments. Therapeutic procedures such as vocal cord medialization, endolaryngeal laser surgery, insertion of speech prostheses and foreign body removal may be performed without general anaesthesia.