How toads breathe: control of air flow to and from the lungs by the nares in Bufo marinus.

@article{Jones1982HowTB,
  title={How toads breathe: control of air flow to and from the lungs by the nares in Bufo marinus.},
  author={Randall M. Jones},
  journal={Respiration physiology},
  year={1982},
  volume={49 2},
  pages={251-65}
}
The external nares rarely close completely during positive pressure lung filling in Bufo marinus. Simultaneous measurement of airflow at the nares and transnarial pressure revealed continuous airflow (out) during lung emptying (nares open) and the subsequent lung filling (nares partially closed). Expiratory minute volume (VE) measured at the nares is… CONTINUE READING