How to time-stamp a digital document

  title={How to time-stamp a digital document},
  author={Stuart Haber and W. Scott Stornetta},
  journal={Journal of Cryptology},
The prospect of a world in which all text, audio, picture, and video documents are in digital form on easily modifiable media raises the issue of how to certify when a document was created or last changed. The problem is to time-stamp the data, not the medium. We propose computationally practical procedures for digital time-stamping of such documents so that it is infeasible for a user either to back-date or to forward-date his document, even with the collusion of a time-stamping service. Our… 
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