How to read a paper: Papers that summarise other papers (systematic reviews and meta-analyses)

@article{Greenhalgh1997HowTR,
  title={How to read a paper: Papers that summarise other papers (systematic reviews and meta-analyses)},
  author={Trisha Greenhalgh},
  journal={BMJ},
  year={1997},
  volume={315},
  pages={672 - 675}
}
Key MethodRemember the essays you used to write as a student? You would browse through the indexes of books and journals until you came across a paragraph that looked relevant, and copied it out. If anything you found did not fit in with the theory you were proposing, you left it out. This, more or less, constitutes the methodology of the journalistic review—an overview of primary studies which have not been identified or analysed in a systematic (standardised and objective) way. #### Summary points A…Expand
How to read a review paper.
TLDR
A systematic review limits bias by disclosing the purpose of the paper, the assembly of the literature, and the appraisal of study quality, and a meta-analysis quantitatively pools data from individual studies for re-analysis. Expand
Are systematic reviews better, less biased and of higher quality?
TLDR
The aim of this paper is to question the key premises of systematic reviews and demonstrate that the claims they are less biased and more rigorous than so called narrative reviews do not hold. Expand
Understanding Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses [Formula: see text].
TLDR
While systematic reviews depend on a more preplanned method and thus, unlike narrative reviews, contain sections on method, they can be easily read once the reader becomes familiar with the vocabulary. Expand
Systematic reviews: the good, the not so good and the good again
TLDR
Systematic reviews provide a rigorous approach to combining research findings across several studies and are considered to be at the top of the evidence hierarchy, as such they provide midwives and student midwives with a sound basis on which to base their practice. Expand
Meta-analysis in evidence.
  • Á. Atallah
  • Medicine
  • Sao Paulo medical journal = Revista paulista de medicina
  • 1997
TLDR
This refereed study compared 12 randomized trials to 19 meta-analyses performed previously and state that the meta-analysis would lead to the adoption of ineffective treatment or rejection of useful treatment in most of the treatments studied. Expand
Systematic review studies: a guide for careful synthesis of the scientific evidence
Introduction: Aggregation of research evidence to guide clinical practice is one of the main reasons for conducting studies that provide a synthesis of the literature, but it is not the only reason.Expand
Critiquing the past for solidifying the future: Understanding the synthesizing facet of reviewing the social studies: Critical approach
Abstract The concept of literature review has several dimensional operations, including reading, analysis, criticism, and synthesis. It is also related to the concept of knowledge gap. In addition,Expand
Systematic reviews of published evidence: miracles or minefields?
  • J. Deeks
  • Medicine
  • Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • 1998
TLDR
The systematic review has emerged in health care publications as an identifiable entity, aiming to produce a comprehensive and reliable overview of the results of all available relevant studies. Expand
What may alter the conclusions of reviews
TLDR
Poor methodological quality and selections made in the review process affected the review conclusions, and all the reviews could have altered parts of their conclusions if the authors had made other relevant selections in the reviewing process. Expand
Systematic Literature Review
The first chapter of this book introduces the importance of studying business model innovation (BMI), the methodology we applied to study the subject, and specific statistics about the literatureExpand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 27 REFERENCES
The Cochrane Collaboration: Preparing, Maintaining, and Disseminating Systematic Reviews of the Effects of Health Care
  • I. Chalmers
  • Medicine
  • Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • 1993
TLDR
The Cochrane Collaboration has evolved in response to this challenge and will eventually cover all areas of health care and contributors in many countries and specialties are preparing and maintaining systematic reviews of RCTs, and reviews of other evidence when appropriate. Expand
The medical review article: state of the science.
  • C. Mulrow
  • Medicine
  • Annals of internal medicine
  • 1987
TLDR
It is indicated that current medical reviews do not routinely use scientific methods to identify, assess, and synthesize information. Expand
An empirical study of the possible relation of treatment differences to quality scores in controlled randomized clinical trials.
TLDR
In an empirical study of the relation of quality scores to treatment differences in published meta-analyses of 7 groups of controlled randomized clinical trials comprising 107 primary studies, it is found no relation between treatment difference and overall quality score. Expand
A comparison of results of meta-analyses of randomized control trials and recommendations of clinical experts. Treatments for myocardial infarction.
TLDR
Finding and analyzing all therapeutic trials in a given field has become such a difficult and specialized task that the clinical experts called on to summarize the evidence in a timely fashion need access to better databases and new statistical techniques to assist them. Expand
Assessing the quality of randomized controlled trials. Current issues and future directions.
TLDR
Empirical evidence indicates that differences in scale development can lead to important differences in quality assessment, and several methods for including quality scores in systematic reviews have been proposed, but since little empirical evidence supports any given method, results must be interpreted cautiously. Expand
Systematic Review: Why sources of heterogeneity in meta-analysis should be investigated
TLDR
This paper distinguishes between the concepts of clinical and statistical heterogeneity and exemplifies the importance of investigating heterogeneity by using published meta-analyses of epidemiological studies of serum cholesterol concentration and clinical trials of its reduction. Expand
The miracle of DICE therapy for acute stroke: fact or fictional product of subgroup analysis?
TLDR
A plausible (but inappropriate) subset analysis of the effects of treatment led to the qualitatively different conclusion that DICE therapy reduced mortality, whereas in truth it was ineffective. Expand
Meta-analysis of randomised trials comparing coronary angioplasty with bypass surgery
TLDR
The combined evidence comparing PTCA with CABG shows no difference in prognosis between these two initial revascularisation strategies, however, the treatments differ markedly in the subsequent requirement for additionalRevascularisation procedures and in the relief of angina. Expand
Magnesium, myocardial infarction, meta-analysis and megatrials
  • Medicine
  • Drug and therapeutics bulletin
  • 1995
TLDR
The place of magnesium in the treatment of patients with myocardial infarction is reviewed, using the review to illustrate the differences between meta-analysis and megatrials. Expand
Should inhaled anticholinergics be added to β2 agonists for treating acute childhood and adolescent asthma? A systematic review
TLDR
Adding multiple doses of anticholinergics to β2 agonists seems safe, improves lung function, and may avoid hospital admission in 1 of 11 such treated patients, and the available evidence only supports their use in school aged children and adolescents with severe asthma exacerbation. Expand
...
1
2
3
...