How to perform an amniocentesis

@article{CruzLemini2014HowTP,
  title={How to perform an amniocentesis},
  author={M{\'o}nica Cruz-Lemini and Miguel Parra-Saavedra and Virginia Borobio and Mar Bennasar and Anna Gonc{\'e} and J. M. Mart{\'i}nez and Antoni Borrell},
  journal={Ultrasound in Obstetrics \& Gynecology},
  year={2014},
  volume={44}
}
Amniocentesis is a technique for withdrawing amniotic fluid from the uterine cavity using a needle, via a transabdominal approach and under continuous ultrasound guidance, in order to obtain a sample of fetal exfoliated cells, transudates, urine or secretions. It can be performed from 16 weeks of pregnancy onwards, with various chromosomal, biochemical, molecular and microbial studies being performed on the amniotic fluid sample. The most common reasons for the procedure are to enable prenatal… 

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The quality of evidence summarised in this review is not of sufficient quality to change current clinical practice, and the operators should continue to use methods and technique modifications with which they are most familiar with.

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A retrospective study on untreated versus treated patients receiving prophylactic antibiotics evaluated the fetal loss rate within the 22nd week of gestation and the risk of spontaneous abortion, both preexisting and related to mid‐trimester amniocentesis.

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A survey sought to review current practice within specialist centres in the United Kingdom for amniocentesis and chorionic villous sampling practice.

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Amniocentesis seems to be safe when performed under highly active antiretroviral treatment, with a low viral load and when avoiding placental passage, but serological status should be assessed in all cases and parents should be aware of the existing evidence for transmission risk.

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