How to justify a crusade? The conquest of Livonia and new crusade rhetoric in the early thirteenth century

  title={How to justify a crusade? The conquest of Livonia and new crusade rhetoric in the early thirteenth century},
  author={Marek Tamm},
  journal={Journal of Medieval History},
  pages={431 - 455}
  • M. Tamm
  • Published 15 October 2013
  • History
  • Journal of Medieval History
This article addresses the issue of how it was possible to justify a crusade to a region, such as the eastern shore of the Baltic, where there were no sacred shrines to protect or Christian lands to reconquer. Adopting a pluralist perspective of crusades, it argues that the Livonian crusade of the early thirteenth century offers some interesting clues to the new developments of crusading ideology. Conceiving of the conquest and conversion of Livonia as a crusade, albeit not quite equal to the… 
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