How to diagnose and treat post-stroke seizures and epilepsy.

@article{Zelano2020HowTD,
  title={How to diagnose and treat post-stroke seizures and epilepsy.},
  author={Johan Zelano and Martin Holtkamp and Nivedita Agarwal and Simona Lattanzi and Eugen Trinka and Francesco Brigo},
  journal={Epileptic disorders : international epilepsy journal with videotape},
  year={2020},
  volume={22 3},
  pages={
          252-263
        }
}
Stroke is one of the commonest causes of seizures and epilepsy, mainly among the elderly and adults. This seminar paper aims to provide an updated overview of post-stroke seizures and post-stroke epilepsy (PSE) and offers clinical guidance to anyone involved in the treatment of patients with seizures and stroke. The distinction between acute symptomatic seizures occurring within seven days from stroke (early seizures) and unprovoked seizures occurring afterwards (late seizures) is crucial… 

Diagnosis and Treatment of Poststroke Epilepsy: Where Do We Stand?

The epidemiology and risk factors for poststroke epilepsy are reviewed, the role of EEG and neuroimaging in patients with stroke and seizures is explained, and an overview on the clinical management of stroke-related acute symptomatic seizures and post stroke epilepsy is provided.

Seizures and Epilepsy After Stroke: Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Management

The epidemiology, risk factors, biomarkers, and management of seizures after an ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke are described and the special considerations required for the treatment of post-stroke epilepsy due to the age, Co-morbidities, co-medication, and vulnerability of stroke survivors are discussed.

Clinical Characteristics of Seizures and Epilepsy after Ischaemic Stroke

Recurrent unprovoked seizures are typical of post-stroke epilepsy, with a predominance of focal epileptic seizures and high efficacy of antiepileptic drugs.

Poststroke Seizure and Epilepsy: A Review of Incidence, Risk Factors, Diagnosis, Pathophysiology, and Pharmacological Therapies

The evidence strongly suggests that the second generation AEDs are a superior treatment method for PSE, with multiple studies demonstrating a reduction in incidence using statins alone, statins in combination with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), and statins with aspirin.

Pharmacotherapeutic considerations for late-onset epilepsy

The choice of the initial ASM in elderly patients newly diagnosed with epilepsy should be made with caution, considering several pharmacological and clinical issues, including the age-related changes that can influence the pharmacokinetics of antiseizure medications (ASMs).

Predictors of Pharmaco-Resistance in Patients with Post-Stroke Epilepsy

Pharmaco-resistance developed in approximately 20% of patients with PSE and was associated with younger age at stroke onset, stroke type and severity, status epilepticus occurrence, and seizure types.

Impact of seizures and their prophylaxis with antiepileptic drugs on rehabilitation course of patients with traumatic or hemorrhagic brain injury

S Severity of brain injury and occurrence of seizures during neurorehabilitation are the main driver of poor outcome in both HS and TBI, and the possible detrimental role on the epileptogenic and functional outcome played by seizures prophylaxis with AEDs warrants further investigation.

Inflammation Mediated Epileptogenesis as Possible Mechanism Underlying Ischemic Post-stroke Epilepsy

An overview of commonalities of inflammatory reactions and cellular processes in the post-ischemic environment and epileptic brain and discuss how these research questions should be addressed in the future are provided.