Drug-eluting stents (DES) have been a major advance in percutaneous coronary intervention reducing restenosis and repeat revascularization. The application of DES to the treatment of complex lesion and patient subsets has resulted in significant rates of DES restenosis or failure. Though predominantly focal, substantial rates of non-focal DES restenosis are being observed. Non-focal disease most likely represents a resistant process that will remain a therapeutic challenge. An understanding of the causative mechanical and biological factors is essential for the prevention and treatment of DES restenosis. Robust data relating to the treatment efficacy for this problem is lacking. At present, repeat DES or vascular brachytherapy appear to the best available options. Evidence from randomized controlled trials and large registries is required to establish a formal treatment approach. We provide guidelines based on current available evidence.