# How to Measure the Cosmic Curvature

@article{Gu2007HowTM, title={How to Measure the Cosmic Curvature}, author={Ying-Qiu Gu and Maxim Yu. Khlopov}, journal={arXiv: General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology}, year={2007} }

The conventional method to determine the cosmic curvature is to measure the total mass density $\Omega_{\rm tot}$. Unfortunately the observational $\Omega_{\rm tot}$ is closely near the critical value 1. The computation of this paper shows that $\Omega_{\rm tot}\approx 1$ is an inevitable result for the young universe independent of the spatial topology. So the mass density is not a good criterion to determine the cosmic curvature. In this paper, we derive a new criterion based on the galactic…

## One Citation

### Dynamic behavior and topological structure of the universe with dark energy

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