How to Handle Opposing Arguments in Persuasive Messages: A Meta-Analytic Review of the Effects of One-Sided and Two-Sided Messages

  title={How to Handle Opposing Arguments in Persuasive Messages: A Meta-Analytic Review of the Effects of One-Sided and Two-Sided Messages},
  author={Daniel J. O’Keefe},
  journal={Annals of the International Communication Association},
  • D. O’Keefe
  • Published 1999
  • Business
  • Annals of the International Communication Association
A random-effects meta-analytic review of the effects of one-sided and two-sided persuasive messages identifies two key moderator variables: whether the two-sided message is refutational or nonrefutational and whether the message is consumer advertising or nonadvertising. Compared with one-sided messages, refutational two-sided messages on nonadvertising topics enjoy significantly greater credibility and persuasiveness, nonrefutational two-sided messages on nonadvertising topics are not… 

Message Design Choices Don't Make Much Difference to Persuasiveness and Can't Be Counted On—Not Even When Moderating Conditions Are Specified

It doesn't make much difference to persuasiveness which option is chosen, and choosing the on-average-more-effective option does not consistently confer a persuasive advantage, even when multiple moderating conditions are specified.

The Relative Persuasiveness of Different Message Types Does Not Vary as a Function of the Persuasive Outcome Assessed: Evidence from 29 Meta-Analyses of 2,062 Effect Sizes for 13 Message Variations

Experiments that compare the persuasiveness of two message types (e.g., strong vs. weak fear appeals) characteristically examine persuasive impact using atti-tudinal, intention, or behavioral

Immediate and Delayed Effects of Message Sidedness

While advertisers usually aim at throwing a positive light on their products, persuasion literature suggests that presenting some drawbacks in a two-sided message can increase persuasion. A two-sided

Stealing Thunder in Negative Political Advertising: The Persuasive Impact of One-sided and Two-sided Negative Messages on Partisan Individuals

Although two-sided persuasion is a common technique in political speeches, few research has reported the relative persuasiveness of a one-versus two-sided message in the context of negative political

Exploring the effect of regulatory focus on ad attitudes: the moderating roles of message sidedness and argument quality.

    D. T. Kao
    International journal of psychology : Journal international de psychologie
  • 2012
One- sided messages result in more favourable ad attitudes when linked with weak AQ for promotion-focused individuals; in contrast, two-sided messages elicit more favourablead attitudes when link with strong AQ for prevention- focused individuals.

The ambivalence story: using refutation to counter the negative effects of ambivalence in two-sided messages

Abstract This research establishes attitude ambivalence as an explanation for previous inconsistent results concerning two-sided messages’ effectiveness. The results of a regression study show that

The Sidedness Effects of Advertising Message: Moderating Effect of Self-Construal and Product Type

The purpose of this study is to examine sidedness effects of a Ad message and moderating roles of consumers` psychological characteristics such as self-construal. This study also examine moderating

The use of heuristics in persuasion : deriving cues on source expertise from argument quality

It is argued that a classic study may be interpreted by this alternative explanation and present a study, in which the effect of argument quality on receivers' attitudes was partially mediated by perceived source expertise.

The Advantages of Compliance or the Disadvantages of Noncompliance? A Meta-Analytic Review of the Relative Persuasive Effectiveness of Gain-Framed and Loss-Framed Messages

A meta-analytic review of the relative persuasiveness of gain-and loss-framed messages (based on 165 effect sizes, N=50,780) finds that loss-framed appeals are not generally more persuasive than

Conversion messages and attitude change: Strong arguments, not costly signals

It is found that Mark Lynas' conversion messages influenced attitudes by way of perceived argument strength, but not speaker credibility, which implies such messages induce greater elaboration, which may lead to durable attitudes that predict behavior.

Two-Sided versus One-Sided Appeals: A Cognitive Perspective on Argumentation, Source Derogation, and the Effect of Disconfirming Trial on Belief Change

The authors consider the effects of exposure to various advertising appeal types (differing in sidedness) on cognitive response and belief change in the context of inoculation and correspondence

Meta‐analysis comparing the persuasiveness of one‐sided and two‐sided messages

A meta‐analysis comparing the persuasiveness of one‐sided and two‐sided messages was conducted. Based on the Elaboration Likelihood Model it was hypothesized that audience favorability would moderate

Receivers' Self-Acceptance and the Effectiveness of Two-Sided Messages

Abstract Previous results of studies on the persuasive effects of two- versus onesided advertisements are somewhat contradictory. It is proposed in the present study that the contradictions stem from

An attribution analysis of the effect of communicator characteristics on opinion change: The case of communicator attractiveness.

This study tested the attribution hypothesis that message persuasiveness decreases to the extent that the position the communicator advocates is expected on the basis of a characteristic he

The persuasive effect of volunteering negative information in advertising

A controlled field experiment was conducted to test the effectiveness of one-sided versus two-sided advertising messages for changing attitudes and purchase intentions, and to test how the nature of

The persuasive impact of two-sided selling appeals for an unknown brand name

The persuasive effectiveness of message sidedness (one versus two-sided messages) and message structure was assessed in the context of a personal selling appeal for a new home computer to an

Effects of appeal type and involvement on product disconfirmation: A cognitive response approach through product trial

Research on consumer cognitive response has focused primarily on the issue of persuasiveness of advertising communications. Involvement states have been frequently proposed as mediators of cognitive

Compensatory Effects of Cognitive Characteristics of the Source, the Message, and the Receiver Upon Attitude Change

Abstract This study explored the interactive effects of four cognitive variables (perceived expertise of the source, recipients' initial attitudes, number of arguments, and message sidedness) on

Processing Effects of Expectancy-Discrepant Persuasive Messages

The effects of expectancy disconfirmation on depth of message processing and persuasion were investigated in two experiments on personal selling. In Exp. 1, subjects read an apocryphal sales