How to Handle Opposing Arguments in Persuasive Messages: A Meta-Analytic Review of the Effects of One-Sided and Two-Sided Messages

  title={How to Handle Opposing Arguments in Persuasive Messages: A Meta-Analytic Review of the Effects of One-Sided and Two-Sided Messages},
  author={Daniel J. O’Keefe},
  journal={Annals of the International Communication Association},
  • D. O’Keefe
  • Published 1999
  • Psychology
  • Annals of the International Communication Association
A random-effects meta-analytic review of the effects of one-sided and two-sided persuasive messages identifies two key moderator variables: whether the two-sided message is refutational or nonrefutational and whether the message is consumer advertising or nonadvertising. Compared with one-sided messages, refutational two-sided messages on nonadvertising topics enjoy significantly greater credibility and persuasiveness, nonrefutational two-sided messages on nonadvertising topics are not… 
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