The learner's cognitive structure is the most important in the lots of factors affecting the efficiency of learning. For general problems currently existing in the individual learning, this paper proposes a method for constructing personalized cognitive structure. Through improving and perfecting Concept Maps the learner's cognitive structure and cognitive level could be represented formally. Then the Personalized Concept Map could be divided into layers according to the characteristics and patterns of knowledge acquisition i.e. from simple to complex, from easy to difficult. To build e-learning system with personalized concept mapping as a core can stay informed of the learner level, for the realization of personalized, intelligent learning system provides a strong foundation.