How to Approach Uroliths from the Kidney to the Urethra

Abstract

 Minimally invasive techniques to treat urolithiasis require specialized equipment to fragment the stones, such as the Holmium:YAG laser.  The Holmium:YAG laser has not been successful in fragmenting all uroliths in horses, and smaller stones may be easier to fragment with this laser.  Other means for lithotripsy include ballistic and electrohydraulic… (More)

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