How the ear's works work

@article{Hudspeth1989HowTE,
  title={How the ear's works work},
  author={A. J. Hudspeth},
  journal={Nature},
  year={1989},
  volume={341},
  pages={397-404}
}
The senses of hearing and equilibrium depend on sensory receptors called hair cells which can detect motions of atomic dimensions and respond more than 100,000 times a second. Biophysical studies suggest that mechanical forces control the opening and closing of transduction channels by acting through elastic components in each hair cell's mechanoreceptive hair bundle. Other ion channels, as well as the mechanical and hydrodynamic properties of hair bundles, tune individual hair cells to… 
How the ear's works work: mechanoelectrical transduction and amplification by hair cells.
The sensory and motor roles of auditory hair cells
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Recently identified proteins involved in the sensory and motor functions of auditory hair cells are described and evidence for each force generator is presented, likely to provide the high sensitivity and frequency discrimination of the mammalian cochlea.
Pairwise coupling of hair cell transducer channels links auditory sensitivity and dynamic range
TLDR
This work shows that this series mode of activation accurately explains measured transduction in hair cells and enhances both sensitivity and dynamic range of hair cell transduction, by one channel that is extremely sensitive at small displacements while the other responds best to larger stimuli.
Adaptation in auditory hair cells
The Ear's Gears: Mechanoelectrical Transduction by Hair Cells
TLDR
Although the authors are generally unaware of the fact, their nervous systems constantly monitor a variety of mechanical stimuli, including blood vessels, the bladder, and the gut, which underlie their sensitivities to sound, to linear accelerations, and to angular accelerations.
The development of cooperative channels explains the maturation of hair cell’s mechanotransduction
TLDR
These phenomena can all be explained by the progressive addition of MET channels of constant properties, which populate the hair bundle first as isolated entities, then progressively as clusters of more sensitive, cooperative MET channels.
Channel gating forces govern accuracy of mechano-electrical transduction in hair cells
TLDR
A stochastically imposed fundamental lower bound is determined on a hair cell's sensitivity to detect mechanically coded information arriving at its hair bundle that allows the detection of vibrational amplitudes with an accuracy on the order of nanometers.
The role of outer hair cell motility in cochlear tuning
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References

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The electrical response of any organ of the internal ear or lateral-line system depends upon the hair cell’s sensitivity to mechanical stimulation. This mechano-sensitivity resides in the hair
Transducer Motor Coupling in Cochlear Outer Hair Cells
Although many lines of evidence point to the outer hair cell as the element which controls basilar membrane mechanics, the precise nature of the interaction within the cochlear partition remains
Transduction and tuning by vertebrate hair cells
Electrical tuning of hair cells in the inner ear
Mechanical relaxation of the hair bundle mediates adaptation in mechanoelectrical transduction by the bullfrog's saccular hair cell.
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  • Biology, Engineering
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1987
Mechanoelectrical transduction by hair cells of the frog's internal ear displays adaptation: the electrical response to a maintained deflection of the hair bundle declines over a period of tens of
Sensitivity, polarity, and conductance change in the response of vertebrate hair cells to controlled mechanical stimuli.
  • A. Hudspeth, D. Corey
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1977
TLDR
Hair cells, the primary receptors of the auditory, vestibular, and lateral-line sensory systems, produce electrical signals in response to mechanical stimulation of their apical hair bundles, and action potentials, possibly calcium spikes, were occasionally evoked in hair cells by mechanical or electrical stimulation.
Stereocilia mediate transduction in vertebrate hair cells (auditory system/cilium/vestibular system).
  • A. Hudspeth, R. Jacobs
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1979
TLDR
The roles of stereocilia and kinocilium are examined by recording intracellularly from bullfrog saccular hair cells, finding that they mediate the transduction process of the vertebrate hair cell and may serve primarily as a linkage conveying mechanical displacements to the stereocilia.
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