How the deployment of attention determines what we see

@article{Treisman2006HowTD,
  title={How the deployment of attention determines what we see},
  author={Anne Treisman},
  journal={Visual Cognition},
  year={2006},
  volume={14},
  pages={411 - 443}
}
  • A. Treisman
  • Published 1 August 2006
  • Computer Science
  • Visual Cognition
Attention is a tool to adapt what we see to our current needs. It can be focused narrowly on a single object or spread over several or distributed over the scene as a whole. In addition to increasing or decreasing the number of attended objects, these different deployments may have different effects on what we see. This article describes some research both on focused attention and its use in binding features, and on distributed attention and the kinds of information we gain and lose with the… 

How Attention can Alter Appearances

It is suggested that attention alters perceived appearances (i.e., features or qualia) by defining the domain of automatic operations in the preconscious buffer—a window of time just prior to conscious experience.

Conjunctions Can Guide Attention Through Visual Search

Guided search is a mechanism that controls and optimizes the deployment of attention during visual search and allows one to pay attention only to highly relevant items. For instance, when searching

Attention and Conscious Perception

Are we conscious of more than what's in the “spotlight” of attention, or is consciousness limited to the content of attention? Recently several authors (DeBrigard & Prinz 2011; Prinz 2010; Dennett &

Viewing the dynamics and control of visual attention through the lens of electrophysiology

On the Optimality of Spatial Attention for Object Detection

A simple, formal mathematical model of the advantage of spatial attention for object detection is developed, in which spatial attention is defined as processing a subset of the visual input, and detection is an abstraction with certain failure characteristics.

Ensemble perception and focused attention: Two different modes of visual processing to cope with limited capacity

This paper claims that a distributed mode of processing is necessary for coping with a limited capacity for dealing with complex and redundant information in a scene, and proposes how the averaging process can access multiple items over the capacity limit of focused attention.

Distributed versus focused attention (count vs estimate).

An overview of how numerosity is represented in the visual domain and its relation to different modes of attention suggests that a focused attention mode is more suitable for enumeration, whereas a distributed attention modes is better for estimation.

Capacity limits and how the visual system copes with them

This paper reviews recent evidence for one strategy: encoding the visual input in terms of a rich set of local image statistics, where the local regions grow — and the representation becomes less precise — with distance from fixation.

Distributed attention beats the down-side of statistical context learning in visual search

Investigation of focused- versus distributed-attention modes contribute to the adaptation of context-based memories that guide visual search indicates that contextual cueing can adapt more easily when attention is distributed, likely because a broad attentional set facilitates the flexible updating of global and local context representations.

What your visual system sees where you are not looking

The implications for understanding visual perception, as well as for imaging applications such as information visualization, are discussed.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 60 REFERENCES

Rapid natural scene categorization in the near absence of attention

It is reported that subjects can rapidly detect animals or vehicles in briefly presented novel natural scenes while simultaneously performing another attentionally demanding task, and some visual tasks associated with “high-level” cortical areas may proceed in the near absence of attention.

Attentional spread in the statistical processing of visual displays

Evidence that statistical processing is automatic when attention is distributed over a display came from the finding that there was no decrement in accuracy relative to single-task performance when mean judgments were made concurrently with another task that required distributed or global attention.

Visual Search for Change: A Probe into the Nature of Attentional Processing

A set of visual search experiments tested the proposal that focused attention is needed to detect change. Displays were arrays of rectangles, with the target being the item that continually changed

Emergent features, attention, and object perception.

The results suggest that some analysis of shapes into simpler parts occurs preattentively, because these parts can recombine to form illusory conjunctions when attention is divided.

Perception of objects in natural scenes: is it really attention free?

  • K. EvansA. Treisman
  • Psychology, Biology
    Journal of experimental psychology. Human perception and performance
  • 2005
The results suggest rapid feature analysis mediating detection, followed by attention-demanding binding for identification and localization in a rapid serial visual presentation sequence.

Illusory conjunctions in the perception of objects

Visual Search and Dual Tasks Reveal Two Distinct Attentional Resources

It is shown that certain targets that pop out among distractors need undivided attention to be effectively discriminated from distractors when presented in isolation, and visual search and dual-task performance reveal attentional resources along two independent dimensions.

Preattentive Object Files: Shapeless Bundles of Basic Features

Influence of scene-based properties on visual search.

This work has shown that visual search also has access to another level of representation, one that describes properties in the corresponding three-dimensional scene that are three dimensionality and the direction of lighting, but not viewing direction.
...