How the Venus flytrap snaps

  title={How the Venus flytrap snaps},
  author={Yoel Forterre and Jan M. Skotheim and Jacques Dumais and Lakshminarayanan Mahadevan},
The rapid closure of the Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) leaf in about 100 ms is one of the fastest movements in the plant kingdom. This led Darwin to describe the plant as “one of the most wonderful in the world”. The trap closure is initiated by the mechanical stimulation of trigger hairs. Previous studies have focused on the biochemical response of the trigger hairs to stimuli and quantified the propagation of action potentials in the leaves. Here we complement these studies by considering… 
The mechanical basis for snapping of the Venus flytrap, Darwin’s ‘most wonderful plant in the world’
Using a force-sensing microrobotics system, an electromechanical model is developed which suggests that under certain circumstances one touch is sufficient to generate two action potentials, suggesting that the Venus flytrap may be adapted to a wider range of prey movement than previously assumed.
Kinematics Governing Mechanotransduction in the Sensory Hair of the Venus flytrap
A multi-scale hair model is built using morphometric data obtained from μ-CT scans to investigate how the stimulus acts on the sensory cells in the Venus flytrap, and suggests that there is likely a higher mechanotransduction activity in these ’hotspots’.
Snapping mechanics of the Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula)
It is shown that full trap turgescence is a mechanical–physiological prerequisite for successful (fast and geometrically correct) snapping, driven by differential tissue changes (swelling, shrinking, or no contribution).
Morphing structures in the Venus flytrap
Venus flytrap is a marvelous plant that intrigued scientists since times of Charles Darwin. This carnivorous plant is capable of very fast movements to catch insects. Mechanism of this movement was
Active movements in plants
A new hydroelastic curvature mechanism is proposed, which is based on the assumption that the lobes possess curvature elasticity and are composed of outer and inner hydraulic layers with different hydrostatic pressure.
Closing of Venus Flytrap by Electrical Stimulation of Motor Cells
The electrical stimulus between a midrib and a lobe closes the Venus flytrap leaf by activating motor cells without mechanical stimulation of trigger hairs, demonstrating that electrical stimulation can be used to study mechanisms of fast activity in motor cells of the plant kingdom.
Trap‐Closing Chemical Factors of the Venus Flytrap (Dionaea muscipulla Ellis)
A bioassay for leaf-closing activity offers an approach to identifying and isolating bioactive metabolites involved in trap closure and verified that Dionaea extracts contain a bioactive substance that induces trap-leaf closure without any stimulus of the sensory hair.
Gravity Affects the Closure of the Traps in Dionaea muscipula
The results suggest that gravity has an impact on trap responsiveness and on the kinetics of trap closure and how the Venus flytrap could be an easy and effective model plant to perform studies on ion channels and aquaporin activities, as well as on electrical activity in vivo on board of parabolic flights and large diameter centrifuges.
Nonlinear Dynamics of the Movement of the Venus Flytrap
An in-depth nonlinear and control analysis of the dynamic process of the Venus flytrap has been provided and it will be possible to better understand this biological process.
Morphing structures of the Dionaea muscipula Ellis during the trap opening and closing
The Venus flytrap is a marvelous plant that has intrigued scientists since the times of Charles Darwin and the most recent Hydroelastic Curvature Model is applied to the analysis of this movement during closing and opening of the trap with or without a prey.


Leaf Closure in the Venus Flytrap: An Acid Growth Response
The rapid closure of leaves in the Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) involves irreversible cell enlargement, which can be initiated by acidifying the cell walls to pH 4.50 and below. Leaves
On the mechanism of trap closure of Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula Ellis)
These experiments make it very likely that the mesophyll cells are already extensible but are kept compressed in the open trap, thus developing tissue tension.
Physiology of Rapid Movements in Higher Plants
This review is not intended to be a comprehensive resume of all published works on the movements, but will return to some of the important older literature which provides a basis for understanding the mechanism.
The power of movement in plants: the role of osmotic machines.
Plant movements are quite widespread in occurrence and all are most probably manifestations of a single physiological process, the change in volume of special motor cells, which provides a basic control of photosynthesis.
The action potential of Dionaea muscipula Ellis
The view that the high mechanosensitivity of the sensory hair results from its anatomy and not from a specialized perception mechanism is stressed, it is proposed that trap closure is triggered by a rise in the cytoplasmic concentration of Ca2+ or a Ca2-activated regulatory complex, which must exceed a threshold concentration.
Carnivorous Plants
PROF. SERRANO FATIGATI, of Ciudad Real (Spain), has made some investigations upon two insect-feeding plants which he found during his last excursion to the province of Cordova, and on the general
Insectivorous Plants
IF further confirmation be needed of Mr. Darwin's discovery of absorption by the leaves of the Drosera rotundifolia it is afforded amply by the following experiments which I have just concluded
Floral morphogenesis in Anagallis: Scanning-electron-micrograph sequences from individual growing meristems before, during, and after the transition to flowering
It is concluded that the complex geometrical features of the inflorescence cycle may result from a change in a biophysical boundary condition involving dome geometry, rather than a comprehensive revision of apical morphogenesis.
Analysis of surface growth in shoot apices.
This is the first detailed quantitative analysis of meristem geometry and surface expansion in 3-D and will be useful to connect cellular activities such as cell expansion, cell division, and differential gene expression with overall Meristem morphogenesis.
Dynamics of poroelastic filaments
  • J. Skotheim, L. Mahadevan
  • Engineering
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences
  • 2004
We investigate the stability and geometrically nonlinear dynamics of slender rods made of a linear isotropic poroelastic material. Dimensional reduction leads to the evolution equation for the shape