How stress influences the immune response.

  title={How stress influences the immune response.},
  author={David A. Padgett and Ronald Glaser},
  journal={Trends in immunology},
  volume={24 8},

Cross-talk between HPA-axis-increased glucocorticoids and mitochondrial stress determines immune responses and clinical manifestations of patients with sepsis

The role of stress-induced activation of the HPA-axis and glucocorticoid secretion by the adrenal gland in mitochondria-dependent signaling pathways that modulate endotoxin-induced inflammatory reactions and innate immunity are described.

Checks and balances: The glucocorticoid receptor and NFĸB in good times and bad

The Effect of Restraint Stress on Glucocorticoid Receptors in Mouse Spleen Lymphocytes: Involvement of the Sympathetic Nervous System

The results suggest that stress-induced increase in the level of GRs is mediated by the sympathetic nervous system via β-adrenergic receptors, and it is possible that stress modulation of lymphocyte GR levels may be implicated in the bidirectional communication between the nervous and the immune systems.

Checks and balances: The glucocorticoid receptor and NF kappa B in good times and bad

The molecular mechanisms of GR and NFκB interactions in health are reviewed, then potential shifts in the GR-NFκB dynamics in chronic stress conditions within the context of brain circuitry relevant to neuropsychiatric diseases are described.

Stress as a Risk Factor in the Pathogenesis of Rheumatoid Arthritis

It is suggested that neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine or stress hormones such as cortisol might have different effects on immune/inflammatory responses at high and low concentrations present during short or extended periods of time, respectively.

The effect of adrenomedullin and cold stress on interleukin‐6 levels in some rat tissues

The results suggest that cold stress may induce increase of rat proinflammatory cytokine IL‐6 and adrenomedullin may play a regulatory or protective role for cold stress.

Stress as an immunomodulator: liver X receptors maybe the answer

The development of synthetic LXR ligands as well as an understanding of the direct involvement of these receptors in the regulation of proopiomelanocortin gene expression and indirectly by producing a variety of cytokines in a stressor response, will open in the near future new therapeutic methods against the undesirable effects of stress on the behavior of the immune system.

Psychosocial stress and inflammation in cancer




Neuroendocrine pharmacology of stress.

Genetic modification of corticosteroid receptor signalling: Novel insights into pathophysiology and treatment strategies of human affective disorders

There is evidence indicating that cortisol-lowering or corticosteroid receptor antagonist treatments may be of clinical benefit in selected individuals with major depression, and a more detailed knowledge of the GR signalling pathways opens up the possibility to specifically target GR function.

Glucocorticoid receptor variants: clinical implications

Stress Hormones, Proinflammatory and Antiinflammatory Cytokines, and Autoimmunity

Excessive immune response, through activation of the stress system, stimulates an important negative feedback mechanism, which protects the organism from an “overshoot” of proinflammatory cytokines and other products of activated macrophages with tissue‐damaging potential.

Modulatory effects of glucocorticoids and catecholamines on human interleukin-12 and interleukin-10 production: clinical implications.

It is suggested that the central nervous system may regulate IL-12 and IL-10 secretion and, hence, TH1/TH2 balance via the peripheral end-effectors of the stress system, which may cause a selective suppression of TH1 functions and a shift toward a TH2 cytokine pattern rather than generalized TH suppression.

Stress, Immune Function, and Health: The Connection

This book explains how the Hormonal Response Induced by Stress Alter the Immune System and how to Buffer the Detrimental Effects of Stress on the ImmUNE System and Health.

Cytokine Dysregulation Associated with Exam Stress in Healthy Medical Students

Data suggest that psychologically stressful situations shift type-1/type-2 cytokine balance toward type-2 and result in an immune dysregulation rather than overall immunosuppression, which may partially explain the increased incidence ofType-2-mediated conditions such as increased viral infections, latent viral expression, allergic/asthmatic reactions, and autoimmunity reported during periods of high stress.

Sympathetic nervous system interaction with the immune system.

Repression of inflammatory responses in the absence of DNA binding by the glucocorticoid receptor

It is found that most actions of glucocorticoid receptor are exerted in the absence of the DNA‐binding ability of the GR: inhibition of the inflammatory response of locally irritated skin and of the systemic response to lipopolysaccharides.