How probability arises in quantum mechanics

  title={How probability arises in quantum mechanics},
  author={E. Farhi and J. Goldstone and S. Gutmann},
  journal={Annals of Physics},
  • E. Farhi, J. Goldstone, S. Gutmann
  • Published 1989
  • Physics
  • Annals of Physics
  • Abstract A version of the postulates of quantum mechanics is presented in which no reference is made to probability. Instead we rely on a weaker postulate referring to eigenvalues and eigenstates. The modulus squared of the inner product of two state vectors is shown to be an eigenvalue of the operator representing a frequency measurement on the system of an infinite number of copies of the original system. The argument makes essential use of the Strong Law of Large Numbers. 
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