How pre- and postnatal risk factors modify the effect of rapid weight gain in infancy and early childhood on subsequent fat mass development: results from the Multicenter Allergy Study 90.

Abstract

BACKGROUND It is unclear which exposures may cause or modify the adverse effect of rapid weight gain on fat mass development in term children whose birth weight is appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA). OBJECTIVE To determine which intrauterine or postnatal exposures increase the risk of or modify the effect of rapid weight gain on body fat percentage (BF%) and body mass index (BMI) trajectories between 2 and 6 y of age. DESIGN Term AGA singletons (n = 370) from the German Multicenter Allergy Study (MAS-90), a longitudinal birth cohort study, with repeated anthropometric measurements until 6 y, and data on breastfeeding status, exposure to smoking during pregnancy, and maternal anthropometric and socioeconomic characteristics were included in this analysis. RESULTS A shorter gestation [multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR): 5.12; 95% CI: 2.22, 11.82; P = 0.0001], being firstborn (OR: 2.01; 95% CI: 1.10, 3.69; P = 0.02), and having been bottle-fed (OR: 3.02; 95% CI: 1.68, 5.43; P = 0.0002) all significantly increased a child's risk of gaining weight rapidly, whereas a larger BMI at birth was protective (OR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.38, 0.77; P = 0.0006). Multilevel model analyses showed that rapid growers exposed to tobacco in utero subsequently gained more BF% between 2 and 6 y than did rapid growers who had not been exposed (beta +/- SE: 0.78 +/- 0.28%/y; P = 0.005). Similarly, change in BF% was greater in rapid growers with an overweight mother than in those with a normal-weight mother (1.01 +/- 0.30%/y; P = 0.0007). CONCLUSIONS The occurrence of rapid weight gain between birth and 2 y and the magnitude of its effect on BF% development in AGA children is influenced by both intrauterine and postnatal exposures.

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@article{KaraolisDanckert2008HowPA, title={How pre- and postnatal risk factors modify the effect of rapid weight gain in infancy and early childhood on subsequent fat mass development: results from the Multicenter Allergy Study 90.}, author={Nadina Karaolis-Danckert and Anette E. Buyken and Michael Kulig and Anja Kroke and Johannes Forster and Wolfgang E. S. Kamin and Antje Schuster and Claudia Hornberg and Thomas Keil and Renate L. Bergmann and Ulrich Wahn and Susanne Lau}, journal={The American journal of clinical nutrition}, year={2008}, volume={87 5}, pages={1356-64} }