How not to be Seen: The Contribution of Similarity and Selective Ignoring to Sustained Inattentional Blindness

@article{Most2001HowNT,
  title={How not to be Seen: The Contribution of Similarity and Selective Ignoring to Sustained Inattentional Blindness},
  author={Steven B. Most and Daniel J. Simons and Brian J. Scholl and Richard Jimenez and Erin R. Clifford and Christopher F. Chabris},
  journal={Psychological Science},
  year={2001},
  volume={12},
  pages={17 - 9}
}
When people attend to objects or events in a visual display, they often fail to notice an additional, unexpected, but fully visible object or event in the same display. This phenomenon is now known as inattentional blindness. We present a new approach to the study of sustained inattentional blindness for dynamic events in order to explore the roles of similarity, distinctiveness, and attentional set in the detection of unexpected objects. In Experiment 1, we found that the similarity of an… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

The role of similarity in inattentional blindness: Selective enhancement, selective suppression, or both?†

ABSTRACT When people selectively pay attention to one set of objects and ignore another, unexpected stimuli often go unnoticed. Noticing rates are higher when the unexpected object matches the

The role of unattended distractors in sustained inattentional blindness

It is concluded that attending to target items on the basis of attentional set, but not active ignoring of nontargets items, is sufficient for the occurrence of sustained inattentional blindness.

Selective Attention in Inattentional Blindness: Selection is Specific but Suppression is Not

When we selectively attend to one set of objects and ignore another, we often fail to notice unexpected events. The likelihood of noticing varies depending on the similarity of an unexpected object

Setting sights higher: category-level attentional set modulates sustained inattentional blindness

  • S. Most
  • Psychology
    Psychological Research
  • 2011
Previous research has shown that inattentional blindness is modulated by how people tune their “attentional set”: the more featurally similar the unexpected object is to what people are trying to

Setting sights higher: category-level attentional set modulates sustained inattentional blindness

  • S. Most
  • Psychology
    Psychological research
  • 2013
The experiments in this paper show that people can also establish attentional sets based on semantic categories, and that these high-level attentional set modulate sustained inattentional blindness.

Inattentional blindness is influenced by exposure time not motion speed

It is demonstrated that inattentional blindness rates are considerably lower if the unexpected object moves more slowly, suggesting that it is the mere exposure time of the object rather than a higher saliency potentially induced by higher speed that determines the likelihood of its detection.

Clarifying the role of target similarity, task relevance and feature-based suppression during sustained inattentional blindness.

The data suggest that when possible, observers inhibit regions of color space rather than individuating specific colors and adjusting the level of inhibition for a particular color accordingly and support the notion of feature-based suppression for task relevant information.

Sustained Inattentional Blindness: The Role of Location in the Detection of Unexpected Dynamic Events

Attempts to understand visual attention have produced models based on location, in which attention selects particular regions of space, and models based on other visual attributes (e.g., in which

Inattentional Blindness and Individual Differences in Cognitive Abilities

The results are largely consistent with the notion that noticing unexpected objects is driven more by stochastic processes common to all people than by stable individual differences in cognitive abilities.

How Meaning Shapes Seeing

The results showed that an unexpected stimulus belonging to the attended semantic category but not sharing physical features with the attended stimuli was detected more often than a semantically unrelated stimulus, implying that the semantic relation between the observer's attentional set and the unexpected stimulus plays a crucial role in inattentional blindness.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 19 REFERENCES

Attentional capture and inattentional blindness

  • D. Simons
  • Psychology
    Trends in Cognitive Sciences
  • 2000

Gorillas in Our Midst: Sustained Inattentional Blindness for Dynamic Events

A new study builds on classic studies of divided visual attention to examine inattentional blindness for complex objects and events in dynamic scenes and suggests that the likelihood of noticing an unexpected object depends on the similarity of that object to other objects in the display and on how difficult the priming monitoring task is.

Sustained Inattentional Blindness: The Role of Location in the Detection of Unexpected Dynamic Events

Attempts to understand visual attention have produced models based on location, in which attention selects particular regions of space, and models based on other visual attributes (e.g., in which

Visual marking: prioritizing selection for new objects by top-down attentional inhibition of old objects.

The authors propose a new mechanism for prioritizing the selection of new events: visual marking and discusses the relations between marking and other accounts of visual selection and potential neurophysiological mechanisms.

The structure of attentional control: contingent attentional capture by apparent motion, abrupt onset, and color.

The results of five spatial cuing experiments suggest that stimulus salience may also play a role in attentional capture and support the hypotheses of Folk et al. (1992) and support asymmetric capture effects between abrupt onset and apparent motion related to stimulus Salience.

Selectivity in distraction by irrelevant featural singletons: evidence for two forms of attentional capture.

  • C. FolkR. Remington
  • Psychology
    Journal of experimental psychology. Human perception and performance
  • 1998
Four experiments addressed the degree of top-down control over attentional capture in visual search for featural singletons in a modified spatial cuing paradigm and suggested the existence of 2 distinct forms of attentional Capture.

Contingent Attentional Capture

Four experiments address the degree of top-down selectivity in attention capture by feature singletons through manipulations of the spatial relationship and featural similarity of target and

Visual search and stimulus similarity.

A new theory of search and visual attention is presented, which accounts for harmful effects of nontargets resembling any possible target, the importance of local nontarget grouping, and many other findings.

Stimulus-driven capture and attentional set: selective search for color and visual abrupt onsets.

  • J. Theeuwes
  • Psychology
    Journal of experimental psychology. Human perception and performance
  • 1994
A stimulus-driven model of performance in which selection is basically determined by the properties of the featural singletons present in the visual field is suggested.

Selective looking: Attending to visually specified events