How many hindsight biases are there?

@article{Blank2008HowMH,
  title={How many hindsight biases are there?},
  author={Hartmut Blank and Steffen Nestler and Gernot von Collani and Volkhard Fischer},
  journal={Cognition},
  year={2008},
  volume={106},
  pages={1408-1440}
}
The answer is three: questioning a conceptual default assumption in hindsight bias research, we argue that the hindsight bias is not a unitary phenomenon but consists of three separable and partially independent subphenomena or components, namely, memory distortions, impressions of foreseeability and impressions of necessity. Following a detailed conceptual analysis including a systematic survey of hindsight characterizations in the published literature, we investigated these hindsight… 
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  • Psychology, Medicine
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  • 2009
TLDR
The present results strongly support the separate-components view of the hindsight bias, which argues that hindsight bias consists of 3 independent components: memory distortions, impressions of inevitability and impressions of foreseeability.
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This article reviews and compares three cognitive process models that relate hindsight bias to changes in an underlying knowledge base as a result of outcome feedback. Two of these models, SARA
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Hindsight bias has traditionally been regarded in light of general laws of information processing and memory. The current review presents a complementary view of hindsight bias, summarizing research
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Thirty-five years since the publication of Fischhoff’s (1975) seminal article, we continue to be fascinated by the hindsight bias. Like a well-developed character in a novel, the bias has something
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In a series of ten preregistered experiments (N=2043), we investigate the effect of outcome valence on judgments of probability, negligence, and culpability – a phenomenon sometimes labelled moral
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Four experiments introduced a new conceptual and methodological approach to hindsight bias, traditionally defined as the tendency to exaggerate the a priori predictability of outcomes after they
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  • N. Roese, K. Vohs
  • Medicine
    Perspectives on psychological science : a journal of the Association for Psychological Science
  • 2012
TLDR
New technologies for visualizing and understanding data sets may have the unintended consequence of heightening hindsight bias, but an intervention that encourages people to consider alternative causal explanations for a given outcome can reduce hindsight bias.
Domain Knowledge and Hindsight Bias among Poker Players
Hindsight bias occurs when individuals believe that events were more predictable after they have occurred than they actually were before they occurred. Although hindsight bias is a well-studied
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The same event that appeared unpredictable in foresight can be judged as predictable in hindsight. Hindsight bias clouds judgments in all areas of life, including legal decisions, medical diagnoses,
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The present research sought to examine the impact of narcissism, prediction accuracy, and should counterfactual thinking—which includes thoughts such as “I should have done something different”—on
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References

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Motivational interpretations of hindsight bias: An individual difference analysis
When individuals learn the outcome of an event or the correct answer to a question, they overestimate its prior predictability: that is, they tend to believe they “knew it all along.” Cognitive and
The hindsight bias: A meta-analysis
Abstract The hindsight bias in probability assessments is one of the most frequently cited judgment biases. A meta-analysis of 122 studies revealed evidence that the bias occurs under some conditions
Hindsight bias: How knowledge and heuristics affect our reconstruction of the past
TLDR
It is observed that the more comprehensive people's knowledge is in foresight, the smaller is their hindsight bias, and the relation between foresight knowledge and hindsight bias appears to be independent of how knowledge is processed.
COGNITIVE PROCESS MODELS OF HINDSIGHT BIAS
This article reviews and compares three cognitive process models that relate hindsight bias to changes in an underlying knowledge base as a result of outcome feedback. Two of these models, SARA
Surprise, defence, or making sense: What removes hindsight bias?
TLDR
It is suggested that a sense of responsibility for the outcome may be necessary for defensive processing to be activated and a proposed sense-making model suggests that unexpected outcomes invoke greater sensemaking, which typically produces greater hindsight bias.
Strength of hindsight bias as a consequence of meta-cognitions
TLDR
The present paper addresses the ongoing debate as to whether the hindsight bias is due to memory impairment or biased reconstruction, and shows that the biased reconstruction approach provides a better explanation for empirical findings in hindsight bias research than does the memory impairment explanation.
Counterfactuals, Causal Attributions, and the Hindsight Bias: A Conceptual Integration
Abstract Although past theory and research have suggested that counterfactual thoughts (representations of alternatives to past outcomes) weaken the hindsight bias (after-the-fact exaggeration of an
Personality differences in hindsight bias
TLDR
It is concluded that individual differences in hindsight bias exist and must be taken into account in a complete model of the effect and no significant proportion of the variance in memory hindsight could be accounted for by personality measures.
Does a surprising outcome reinforce or reverse the hindsight bias
Abstract There are conflicting hypotheses regarding the effect of a surprising outcome on hindsight judgment. According to the hypothesis presented in this paper, high levels of surprise will lead to
The Role of Surprise in Hindsight Bias: A Metacognitive Model of Reduced and Reversed Hindsight Bias
Hindsight bias is the well researched phenomenon that people falsely believe that they would have correctly predicted the outcome of an event once it is known. In recent years, several authors have
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