How do you feel — now? The anterior insula and human awareness

@article{Craig2009HowDY,
  title={How do you feel — now? The anterior insula and human awareness},
  author={A. D. Craig},
  journal={Nature Reviews Neuroscience},
  year={2009},
  volume={10},
  pages={59-70}
}
  • A. Craig
  • Published 2009
  • Psychology
  • Nature Reviews Neuroscience
The anterior insular cortex (AIC) is implicated in a wide range of conditions and behaviours, from bowel distension and orgasm, to cigarette craving and maternal love, to decision making and sudden insight. Its function in the re-representation of interoception offers one possible basis for its involvement in all subjective feelings. New findings suggest a fundamental role for the AIC (and the von Economo neurons it contains) in awareness, and thus it needs to be considered as a potential… 

Anterior insular cortex and emotional awareness

A model in which AIC serves two major functions: integrating bottom‐up interoceptive signals with top‐down predictions to generate a current awareness state and providing descending predictions to visceral systems that provide a point of reference for autonomic reflexes is proposed.

The sentient self

  • A. Craig
  • Psychology
    Brain Structure and Function
  • 2010
The neuroanatomical evidence for a progression of integrative representations of affective feelings from the body that lead to an ultimate representation of all feelings in the bilateral anterior insulae, or “the sentient self,” is addressed.

Role of the Insula in Human Cognition and Motivation

The insula is a “hub” where the subjective feelings of humans regulate emotion, cognition, and motivation and a pleasant stimulus induces an action aimed at the persistence of that feeling, while unpleasant interoceptive information leads to avoidant behaviors.

The pathways of interoceptive awareness

It is found that the insula and ACC were not critical for awareness of heartbeat sensations, and this awareness was mediated by both somatosensory afferents from the skin and a network that included the insular and ACC.

Conjoint activity of anterior insular and anterior cingulate cortex: awareness and response

The case that anterior insular and anterior cingulate cortices are crucial, firstly, for the production of subjective feelings and, secondly, for co-ordinating appropriate responses to internal and external events is reinforced.

Emotional moments across time: a possible neural basis for time perception in the anterior insula

  • A. Craig
  • Biology, Psychology
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
  • 2009
A model of awareness based on interoceptive salience is described, which has an endogenous time base that might provide a basis for the human capacity to perceive and estimate time intervals in the

The insular cortex

All the Self We Need

I use evidence from psychiatric disorders involving the experience of depersonalisation to decompose the causal and cognitive structure of experiences reported as self-awareness.  I combine insights

Interoceptive predictions in the brain

The Embodied Predictive Interoception Coding model is introduced, which integrates an anatomical model of corticocortical connections with Bayesian active inference principles, to propose that agranular visceromotor cortices contribute to interoception by issuing interoceptive predictions.

The Body in the Mind: On the Relationship Between Interoception and Embodiment

An overview over present findings and models on interoception and mechanisms of embodiment is given and its relevance for disorders that are suggested to represent a translation deficit of bodily states into subjective feelings and self-awareness is highlighted.
...

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