How do we determine the impact of e‐cigarettes on cigarette smoking cessation or reduction? Review and recommendations for answering the research question with scientific rigor

@article{Villanti2018HowDW,
  title={How do we determine the impact of e‐cigarettes on cigarette smoking cessation or reduction? Review and recommendations for answering the research question with scientific rigor},
  author={Andrea C. Villanti and Shari P. Feirman and Raymond S. Niaura and Jennifer L. Pearson and Allison M. Glasser and Lauren K. Collins and David B Abrams},
  journal={Addiction},
  year={2018},
  volume={113},
  pages={391–404}
}
AIMS To propose a hierarchy of methodological criteria to consider when determining whether a study provides sufficient information to answer the question of whether e-cigarettes can facilitate cigarette smoking cessation or reduction. DESIGN A PubMed search to 1 February 2017 was conducted of all studies related to e-cigarettes and smoking cessation or reduction. SETTINGS Australia, Europe, Iran, Korea, New Zealand and the United States. PARTICIPANTS AND STUDIES 91 articles… 

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  • Medicine, Psychology
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  • 2019
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This systematic review found limited quantitative evidence assessing effectiveness of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation in vulnerable populations and needed to consider appropriate devices for practicality and safety, concurrent support, and comparison with best practice smoking cessation support.
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Evidence review of e-cigarettes and heated tobacco products 2018: a report commissioned by Public Health England.
TLDR
The evidence does not support the concern that e-cigarettes are a route into smoking among young people, and regular use is rare and is almost entirely confined to those who have smoked.
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It is suggested that consistent and frequent e-cigarettes use over time is associated with cigarette smoking cessation among adults in the US and that flavored e-cigarette use and use of rechargeable e- cigarette devices can facilitate smoking cessation.
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Changes in E-Cigarette Use Behaviors and Dependence in Long-term E-Cigarette Users.
Are electronic nicotine delivery systems helping cigarette smokers quit? Evidence from a prospective cohort study of U.S. adult smokers, 2015–2016
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It is found that ENDS use, within context of the 2015–2016 US regulatory and tobacco/vaping market landscape, helped adult smokers quit at rates higher than smokers who did not use these products.
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TLDR
Use of e-cigarettes is associated with smoking cessation and reduction, and more randomised controlled trials are needed to assess effectiveness against other cessation methods.
Electronic Cigarettes in North America: History, Use, and Implications for Smoking Cessation
Background— Designed to mimic the look and feel of tobacco cigarettes, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) may facilitate smoking cessation. However, the efficacy and safety of e-cigarette use for
Efficacy of Electronic Cigarettes for Smoking Cessation
TLDR
There is limited evidence for the effectiveness of e-cigarettes in smoking cessation; however, there may be a place in therapy to help modify smoking habits or reduce the number of cigarettes smoked.
E-Cigarettes and Smoking Cessation: Insights and Cautions From a Secondary Analysis of Data From a Study of Online Treatment-Seeking Smokers.
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The magnitude and significance of the estimated association between e-cigarette use and cessation in this study were dependent upon the analytical approach and future research should employ better measures of patterns of and reasons for e- cigarette use, frequency of e-cigarettes use, and concurrent use of cessation aids.
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E-cigarette use alone might support tobacco quitters remaining abstinent from smoking, but dual use did not improve the likelihood of quitting tobacco or e-cigarettes, but may be helpful to reduce tobacco consumption.
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TLDR
If e-cigarette safety will be confirmed, however, the use of e-cigarettes alone may facilitate quitters remaining so, although e-smokers showed a minimal but significantly higher increase in self-rated health than other smokers.
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TLDR
Daily use of electronic cigarettes for at least 1 month is strongly associated with quitting smoking at follow-up, and the underlying reasons for intensive versus intermittent use are investigated to shed light on the mechanisms underlying the associations between e-cigarette use, motivation to quit, and smoking cessation.
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TLDR
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