How do tympanic-membrane perforations affect human middle-ear sound transmission?

@article{Voss2001HowDT,
  title={How do tympanic-membrane perforations affect human middle-ear sound transmission?},
  author={Susan E. Voss and John J. Rosowski and Saumil N. Merchant and William T. Peake},
  journal={Acta oto-laryngologica},
  year={2001},
  volume={121 2},
  pages={169-73}
}
Although tympanic-membrane (TM) perforations are common sequelae of middle-ear disease, the hearing losses they cause have not been accurately determined, largely because additional pathological conditions occur in these ears. Our measurements of acoustic transmission before and after making controlled perforations in cadaver ears show that perforations cause frequency-dependent loss that: (1) is largest at low frequencies; (2) increases as perforation size increases; and (3) does not depend on… CONTINUE READING

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