How direct is visual perception?: Some reflections on Gibson's “ecological approach”

  title={How direct is visual perception?: Some reflections on Gibson's “ecological approach”},
  author={Jerry A. Fodor and Zenon W. Pylyshyn},

Are theories of perception necessary? A review of Gibson's The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception.

  • A. Costall
  • Psychology, Art
    Journal of the experimental analysis of behavior
  • 1984
This review article considers Gibson's final statement of his "ecological" alternative to cognitivism (Gibson, 1979) and aims to emphasize the point of his alternative scheme and explain some of the important concerns shared by Gibson's ecological approach and operant psychology.

Mental imagery: In search of a theory

  • Z. Pylyshyn
  • Psychology, Philosophy
    Behavioral and Brain Sciences
  • 2002
It is claimed that when such questions as whether images are depictive or spatial are formulated more clearly, the evidence does not provide support for the picture-theory over a symbol-structure theory of mental imagery, and whether recent neuroscience evidence clarifies the debate over the nature of mental images is considered.

How to Perceive the Past with your Eyes Shut

THERE IS A TENDENCY to assume that memory and perception are entirely distinct: that is, if x is a memory, then x is not a perception, and if x is a perception, then x is not a memory. My aim in what

Determining the primary problem of visual perception: A Gibsonian response to the “correlation” objection

Abstract Fodor & Pylyshyn (1981) criticize J. J. Gibson's ecological account of perception for failing to address what I call the ‘correlation problem’ in visual perception. That is, they charge that

Affording Illusions? Natural Information and the Problem of Misperception

  • Hajo Greif
  • Art
    AVANT. The Journal of the Philosophical-Interdisciplinary Vanguard
  • 2019
There are two related points at which James J. Gibson’s ecological theory of visual perception remains remarkably underspecified. First, the notion of information for perception is not explicated in

Interface Theory vs Gibson: An Ontological Defense of the Ecological Approach

This analysis will show that, far from being a radical new approach to perception, interface theory is simply a clear and elegant formalization of mainstream representational psychology, and any implications interface theory may have belong solely to that branch of science.

Perception-Action Mutuality Obviates Mental Construction

> context • The dominant approach to the study of perception is representational/computational, with an emphasis on the achievements of the brain and the nervous system, which are taken to construct

Philosophy of perception

Current philosophy of perception has its roots in the assumption of what is sometimes called “the Cartesian epistemological tradition”. These assumptions are: (1) That to understand what knowledge is



Against direct perception

  • S. Ullman
  • Psychology
    Behavioral and Brain Sciences
  • 1980
Abstract Central to contemporary cognitive science is the notion that mental processes involve computations defined over internal representations. This view stands in sharp contrast to the “direct

The imagery debate: Analogue media versus tacit knowledge.

The debate over the nature of mental imagery, especially with respect to the interpretation of recent findings on the transformation of images.” has failed to focus on the crucial differences between

Computation and cognition: issues in the foundations of cognitive science

Abstract The computational view of mind rests on certain intuitions regarding the fundamental similarity between computation and cognition. We examine some of these intuitions and suggest that they

Gibson's Theory of Perception: A Case of Hasty Epistemologizing?

Hintikka has criticized psychologists for "hasty epistemologizing," which he takes to be an unwarranted transfer of ideas from psychology (a discipline dealing with questions of fact) into

A Review of B. F. Skinner's Verbal Behavior

I had intended this review not specifically as a criticism of Skinner's speculations regarding language, but rather as a more general critique of behaviorist (I would now prefer to say "empiricist")

Fact, Fiction, and Forecast

liELsoN Goodman's second book,1 which represents?excepting the first chapter, a reprint of the well-known paper, "The Prob lem of Counterfactual Conditionals"?the "Special Lectures in Philosophy" he

The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception

Contents: Preface. Introduction. Part I: The Environment To Be Perceived.The Animal And The Environment. Medium, Substances, Surfaces. The Meaningful Environment. Part II: The Information For Visual

The Interpretation of Visual Motion

This book uses the methodology of artificial intelligence to investigate the phenomena of visual motion perception: how the visual system constructs descriptions of the environment in terms of

Evoked Brain Potentials: Signs or Codes?

  • W. Uttal
  • Medicine
    Perspectives in biology and medicine
  • 1967
The evoked-potential techniques provide a route of attack on one of the most profound questions ever asked by philosopher-scientists: that of the relation between discriminative behavior and information state of the neuronal matrix.

Optical motions and transformations as stimuli for visual perception.

  • J. Gibson
  • Psychology, Physics
    Psychological review
  • 1957
The kinds of physical motion that occur in the human environment are noted and the kinds and variables of optical stimulation that correspondingly occur are examined to make possible an experimental psychophysics of kinetic impressions.