How cytochrome c oxidase can pump four protons per oxygen molecule at high electrochemical gradient.


Experiments have shown that the A-family cytochrome c oxidases pump four protons per oxygen molecule, also at a high electrochemical gradient. This has been considered a puzzle, since two of the reduction potentials involved, Cu(II) and Fe(III), were estimated from experiments to be too low to afford proton pumping at a high gradient. The present quantum… (More)
DOI: 10.1016/j.bbabio.2014.12.005