How could improvement in the management of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia be achieved? Experience of Princess Nourah Oncology Center, National Guard Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Abstract

10048 Background: T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is representing 10-15% of pediatric ALL. The use of more intensive treatments and risk adapted therapy have significantly improved the outcome of patients with T-ALL and event-free survival rate of 60-70% are now reported in children. Our published data showed that T-ALL phenotype patients fared poorly with 5 year survival of 27% versus 83% for precursor B-ALL (Recent Advances Research Update: 2006, 7; 1, P 51-56). OBJECTIVES We reviewed all patients diagnosed with T-ALL to assess risk classification according to NCI criteria, type of therapy received, overall survival and causes of mortality. METHODS Retrospective review of all patients files diagnosed with T-ALL from 1989 until now with data collection including; sex, age, white cell count (WBCs), CNS disease, type of protocol used, length of survival, overall survival, cause of death (toxic, disease). RESULTS Over the last 20 years, T-ALL cases registered were 52/460 (11%) of all ALL cases, Male:Female ratio 42:10 (4.2:1), median age 7 year (range: 1.5-12 yrs). Median WBCs 50,000/Cmm (range: 1.500-619,000/Cmm) and positive CNS at diagnosis 10/52 (20%). NCI risk classification criteria showed SR 24/52 (46%) and HR 28/52 (54%). Protocols used were UKALL ( n = 21; 3 UKALL X-B, 4 UKALL X-D, 10 UKALL XI and 4 MRC-97 ). BFM (n = 8); and CCG 1961 (n = 23). Overall survival 27/52 (52%) and 25 pts. died (48%); 15 secondary to disease recurrence (9 on UKALL, 4 BFM, 2 CCG 1961); 4 during induction, 1 fulminant hepatic failure, 1 tumor lysis syndrome, and 4 due to toxicities (mucormycosis, staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome, CMV pneumonia, pseudomonas sepsis). Survival for different regimen; UKALL: 5/21=31%, BFM: 4/8=50%, CCG: 18/23=78%, while overall cohort survival 52%. Mean length of survivors 4 year (range 4-140 month) and mean length for non-survivors 1 year (range 0.1-40 months). CONCLUSIONS This review showed the improvement of T-ALL survival from 27% to 56%. Using augmented therapy based on CCG1961 was associated with better outcome. Further risk and response stratification in addition to intensification of therapy for T-cell ALL in our center may prove to be beneficial. Therapy remains an important prognostic factor. No significant financial relationships to disclose.

Cite this paper

@article{Khattab2009HowCI, title={How could improvement in the management of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia be achieved? Experience of Princess Nourah Oncology Center, National Guard Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.}, author={Taha M Khattab and Wasil A Jastaniah and Sami K Felimban and Noha Mousaad Elemam and Khan Abdullah and Bahaddin Ahmed}, journal={Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology}, year={2009}, volume={27 15_suppl}, pages={10048} }